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Kathleen Deagan 
lorida State University 

1980 




975. 
9131 
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V5- Hlttl 




Kathleen Deagan 
lorida State University 

1980 



iPisfi 



D^l 



Excavations at the Castillo de San Marcos 
St. Augustine, Florida: 
Archeological Data in Support 
of Architectural Stabilization 

Kathleen Deagan 
Florida State University 
December 1980 



73^ 



Submitted to: The National Fark Service Southeast Archeological 

Center 
Tallahassee, Florida. 
NPS-FSU Contract #50 0090739 



Preface 

The work reported here was supported by National Park Ser- 
vice contract CX 5000090739 , and also by xhe Florida 
State University Anthropology Departmenx. 

This report deals with only a single part of the archeolo- 
gical data from xhe excavations ax the Castillo de San Marcos, 
thax concerning xhe Forx's architectural conditions and evolution. 
As the introductory section illustrates, there were several other 
emphases than architecxural interpretation in the archeological 
investigation of the site; however the primary funding agency 
goals were those relaxed xo sxabilization and archixecture. It 
was for this reason that the present reporting format consisxing 
of Xwo reports Wcis selected; xnese include one dealing with 
architectural investigations, and one concentrating upon those 
problems of primary interest to the anthropological and archeo- 
logical communities (Williams n.d.). The latter also integrates 
the results of the zooarcheological analysis of food remains from 
the site. 

The seperation of these foci xook place only in the prepar- 
ation of this report, since the research design, escavation stra- 
tegies, contextual and material analyses all simultaneously incor- 
porated those data categories necessary for both architecturally 
and anxhropologically orienxed inXerpretations During all of 
these phases of the project, a number of people were instrumental 
in its successful complexion. Maurice Williams, FSU graduate 
student, was the overall field supervisor for xhe entire project, 



and maintained the control and recording systems which allowed 
our interpretations to be made. George Pischer, NPS contracting 
officer for the project, was actively involved in all phases, 
and we are very grateful for nis time and trouble shooting, and 
particularly for his role in coordinating the problems and needs 
of the archeologis ts , architects and park management personnel. 

We owe Luis Arana a special thanks, for unstinting contri- 
butions of his time and his knowledge about the Castillo. Many 
difficult points of interpretation were resolved in consultation 
with Luis Arana. 

The archeological work at the Castillo would have been impos- 
sible had it not been for the cooperation and help of the Park 
staff. Overall support and logisxical advice were provided by 
Robert Amdor and George Schesventer; and help with the daily 
logisxical and technical problems of working at a major tourist 
attraction was freely given by tne maintenance staff and Park 
inxerprexors at xne Castillo. The humor and friendliness of the 
rangers and maintenance sxaff additionally did much to make our 
work at the Casxilio pleasanx. 

AssisXance in preparing tables for xhis reporX was provided 
by Maurice Williams and Julia King, and illusXraXions were done 
by Jdjries Quine. 



Table of Contents 



Introduction 1 

Significance and Historical Background 

of the Castillo 3 

Previous Archeological Research and 

Resulting Data 6 

1979 Project Scope 9 

Methods and Controls 12 

South Covered Way Excavations 17 

Archeological Data 21 

Trench 1, Sections E-E 21 

Trench 1, Section A, Extensions A and B 24 

The South Covered Way Wall 38 

The Glacis Excavation 39 

The Counterscarp 42 

South Covered Way Summary 56 

Ravelin Excavations 57 

Water Battery Excavations 96 

Interior Excavations 116 

The Latrines 1 17 

The East Latrine 120 

The West Latrine - Interior 123 

Latrine Summary 136 

West Latrine, Test Pit 2: Courtyard 

Excavation 150 

Seminole Room Excavations 163 

Archeological Data: pre- 1685 Phase 164 

Post-1685 Phase 173 

Post-1756 Renovation Activities 180 

Seminole Room Excavations Summary 183 



Appendix 1 
Appendix 2 
Aopendix 3 



Colonial maps of the Castillo 223 

Soil Moisture test results 233 

Faunal remains from the Castillo 

de San Marcos. by Rochelle A. 

Marrinan, Zooarcheologist 2 32 



-ibliop-raohv 220 



List of Figures 

1 Location of Test Units in the 1979 CASA excavations 15 

2 Locations of Test Units in the South Covered Way 18 

3 South Covered Way; Trench 1 and Trench 3, West 
Profiles and Section through South Covered Way 

Wall 25 

4 South Covered Way Wall - North Elevation 34 

5 South Covered Way Wall - £>ub-grade Elevation 35 

6 South Covered Way Wall - South Elevation (Glacis 

side) 40 

7 South Covered Way, Trench 2, Section A; Counter- 
scarp Wall, North Face 44 

8 South Covered Way, Counterscarp Wall, North Face 
(Photo) 45 

9 Locations of Test Units in the Ravelin 58 

10 Powder Magazine Detail: Castello Map of 1763 60 

11 navelin, Test Square 2 and Test Pit 3; East Profile 65 

12 Ravelin, Test Pit 3; North Profile 67 
13 

14 Features 6 and 11: Ravelin Powder Magazine 68 

15 Locations of Test Units in the Water Battery 97 

16 Water Battery, Trench 1, Section A: North and 

West Profiles 99 

17 Sub-Grade Foundation of Scarp in Water Battery 100 

18 Water Eattery, Test Square 2; North Profile 

(Shot Furnace Base) 103 

19 Water Battery, Shot Furnace Sub-Grade Foundation 104 

20 Locations of Test Units in Latrines 118 

21 East Latrine, Trench 5; West Profile 1^1 



22 West Latrine, Test Pit 1 

23 West Latrine, Test Pit 1 

24 West Latrine, Test Pit 1 

25 West Latrine, Test Pit 1 



^ouxh Profile 1^4 

East Profile 125 

North Profile 'izb 

West Elevation 1^8 



26 West Latrine: Feature 15 1 30 

27 West Latrine, Test Pit 1; Plan of Feature 15 

(Privy) and Feature 14 (Ledge) 131 

dQ West Latrine/Courtyard, Test Pit z; East Profile 151 

^9 West Latrine/Courtyard, Test Pit z; South Elevation 155 



List of Figures, cont'd. 



30 

31 

32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 



Locations of Test Units in the Seminole Room 

Relationship of Present Seminole Room Configuration 
to that shown on the 1675 Salazar Map 

Seminole Room, Test Pit 1 



Seminole Room 

Seminole Room 

Seminole Room 

Seminole Room 

Seminole Room 

Seminole Room 
room's north wall) 



Seminole Room 



Test Pit 1 

Test Pit 2 

Test Pit 2 

Test Pit 1 

Test Pit 1 

Test Pit 1 



West Profile 
West Profile 
West Profile 
West Profile 
Features 20 and 21 
Feature 21 (west face) 
Feature 20 (Ledge along 



Test Pit 2; East Profile 



165 

166 
168 

169 
171 
172 
174 
175 

178 
182 



List of Tables 

1 Mean Sea Level Elevations: Excavation Datums 16 

2 South Covered Way Provenience Guide 22 

3 South Covered Way, Trench 1, Section A: Ceramics 26 

4 South Covered Way, Trench 1, Section A: Non-ceramic 
Material Culture 30 

5 South Covered Way, Counterscarp, Trench 2, Section 

A: Ceramics 46 

6 South Covered Way, Glacis, Trench 3, Section A: 
Ceramics 52 

7 South Covered Way, Glacis, Trench 3, Section A: 
Non-Ceramic Material Culture '.'54 

8 Ravelin Provenience Guide 62 

9 Ravelin, Test Square 1: Ceramics 72 

10 Ravelin, Test Square 1: Non-Ceramic Material 

Culture 74 

11 Ravelin, Test Square 2: Ceramics 76 

12 Ravelin, Teat Square 2: Non-Ceramic Material 

Culture 80 

13 Ravelin, Test Pit J>: Ceramics 84 

14 Ravelin, Test Pit 3: Non-Ceramic Material Culture 90 

15 Water Battery Provenience Guide 105 

16 Water Battery, Trench 1, Section A: Artifacts 107 

17 Water Battery, Test Square 2: Artifacts 113 

18 Latrine Provenience Guide 139 

19 East Latrine Artifact Distribution 142 

20 West Latrine, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distribution 144 

21 Courtyard Pit (West Latrine, Test Square 2) 
Provenience Guide 156 

22 Courtyard Pit (West Latrine, Test Square 2): 
Artifact Distribution 157 

23 Seminole Room Provenience Guide 185 

24 Seminole Room, Test Pit 1 : Artifact Distribution 188 

25 Seminole Room, Test Pit 2: Artifact Distribution 192 



Introduction 

The Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, in St. 
Augustine, Florida, is architecturally, culturally and histori- 
cally unique. As the symbol of Spanish presence in North Ameri- 
ca for more than two centuries, and as the site of more than 
750,000 visitors each year; it's preservation and maintenance 
and interpretation are of the utmost importance. 

The 1979 archeological project at the Castillo was car- 
ried out by the Florida State University Field School between 
April 1, 1979 and August 23, 1979, under the direction of the 
author. The fieldwork was supervised by Maurice Williams of 
Florida State University. The project was done in conjunction 
with, and under contract to, the Southeast Archeological Center 
of the National Park Service; as part of a large multi-disci- 
plinary project coordinated by the Denver Service Center, NPS . 
This included historians, structural engineers and architects; 
each of whom will be assessing and reporting the data for their 
portions of the project. 

The archeological portion was carried out with objectives 
on several levels, including architectural stabilization impact 
mitigation, historic structure report needs; Park management 
needs; and relevant anthropological and scientific issues. In 
all cases, the excavation was planned with project architects 
in order to recover the minimal amount of data from each excava- 
tion area with which both the stabilization impact and historic 
structure report needs could be met. While no excavation 



primarily oriented around gathering interpretive or anthro- 
pological data was done; such data was recoverable and reco- 
vered from all areas; and whenever at all possible; excavation 
was planned to incorporate this data. 

Because of this multi-level nature of the project, the 
research design (Deagan 1979) and reporting are also multi- 
level. The stabilization requirements for the fort were 
observed and analyzed on site by the project architect, Craig 
Crazier, of the NPS Denver Service Center, and the assessment 
of the need for stabilization will be included in his report. 
Anthropological issues to which the excavations were pertinent 
are discussed below, and the application of the cultural re- 
mains and distributions at the Castillo to these problems can 
be found in the report by Williams (in prep: rv. d.)' • which is 
an M.A. thesis from Florida State University which concentrates 
on those aspects of the excavation and the Castillo which are 
not of direct relevance to the stabilization program, but 
which are of considerable importance to the anthropological 
community. 

This report will concentrate on synthesizing and presen- 
ting the field and architectural data; and dealing with the 
historic structure report needs, some stabilization needs, and 
Park management needs addressed by the archeological project. 

The continuing desire for a stabilization program at the 
Castillo was in response not only to the need for preserving 
a unique historic site, but also to the increasing structural 
nroblems at the monument. These problems have been outlined 



in the Denver Service Center (MPS) Task Directive for the 
Castillo de San Marcos, and include: 

1. Structural decay of plaster and masonry in the fort which 
require extensive assessment and preservation. 

2. Major cracks in the scarp walls which suggest the need for 
foundation investigation and stabilization. 

3. Decay of interior elements such as plaster walls, tabby 
floors, paint and 17th through 19th century wall graffiti. 

4. The terreplein non-historic wear coat cover does not protect 
the casemates below from water, and this poses problems of water 
damage to the rooms. 

5 The coquina stone, of which the fort is built, is fragile 
and subject to rapid deterioration through the agents of weather 
and human visitors. 

6. In addition to all of the major problems, many now-minor 
problems require attention. These include wood decay, lime 
leaching from tabby and a deteriorating shot furnace. 

Significance and Historical Background of the Castillo 

It should be pointed out that the historical background 
data on the Castillo is a seperate part of the project, being 
carried out through the Denver Service Center. Unfortunately, 
this portion of the project was not completed prior to the 
archeological portion; and the complete report on Castillo 
history has not been provided to the archeologists at the time 
of the final preparation of this manuscript. For this reason, 
it is highly likely that some inconsistencies in interpretation 
may be found between the archeological and historical data 



ti ■.. ; the archeological section may well be In 
Ln Lts assessment and Lnterprel :es, altera- 

us and sequences in I ic fabric ~: the : rt, 

artogra: -.- . ad a limited historical survey 

carried out independently by the arche leal team. pri- 
ry source was Mr. Luis Arana, Park His tori -_lo, 

*ho provided us with copies and Iceys to relevant napi 1) 

to documentary sources; and wit.-: l^rge amounts : f bis time. Se- 
condary sources included Arana and Hanucy (1977)i Lne 
1941) and Arana ( 1967) . 

e significance of the Castillo de San Marcos can ze seen 
architecturally, historically, culturally and militari. . : .lly . 
Built in 1672, it is the oldest masonry fortification In 
North America and is a clear example of the development and 
adaptation of 17th century European military architecture 
v World conditions. 

e construction material of the fort, :oquJ :, 

is also unique, and the Castillo is the oldest bu .re 
vhat was Spanish Florida (founded in 1565). St. i .. tine, 
the military and r^ dus headquarters for ! ti east' 
North America, was a government-subj Lzed, 

intil :ne end t the first Spanish period '• ■■-- ' 
As sue- . tie commu: *as made up almost entJ 

1 and their families, « ted th< isti 
and the military system. * ber colonies jf the - 
New • Lfe revolve so completely arou: 

. -system as it c. . Spar. La. reasc . the 



Castillo is an important and unique site not only as a rare 
example of 17th century military architecture; nor only as 
ancient coquina structure \ nor only as the symbol of 235 years 
of Spanish presence in North America; but also as The single 
most pervasive aspect of colonial community life in the nation's 
oldest city. 

The Castillo has captured xhe attention of architects, 
historians, military scholars and anthropologists concerned with 
the processes of community interactions and adaptations. 

The Castillo de San Marcos was the last of nine Spanish 
forts built in St. Augustine between 1565 and 1676; and the 
last of seven forts built on its present location. It functioned 
as a buffer to British encroachment to the north, particularly 
after the founding of Charleston in 1670. It was also an 
important defense and relief station for the Spanish treasure 
fleet and its frequent wreck victims . 

Construction was begun on the coquina fort in 1672, and 
completed by 1695. The Castillo successfully withstood Bri- 
tish seiges in 1702 and 174-0. In 1738 major modifications 
began, during which the bombproof arched casemates were con- 
structed, and the courtyard was made somewhat smaller (see 
Arana and Manucy 1977). In 1763 Spain ceded Florida to Eng- 
land, and from 1775 until 1781 the Castillo was the British 
military headquarters in Florida. During this time it served 
as a loyalist prison. From 1784 until 1821, Florida was once 
again a Spanish colony, and in 1821 was ceded to the United 
States by Spain. During the 19th century the Castillo served 



principally as a prison, and from 1898 until the present it 
has "been preserved as a historic structure by the War Depart- 
ment and National Park Service. 

Previous Archeological Research and Resulting; Data 

Little controlled archeological investigation has been 
carried out at the Castillo de San Marcos. That work which 
has been reported is listed in the bibliography, and is summar- 
ized in the archeological research section of the draft His- 
torical Resource Management Plan prepared by the National 
Park Service Southeast Archeological Center (Pischer 1976). 

Some of the earliest controlled archeological work at the 
Castillo was carried out by Mr. Jack Winter, through the Car- 
negie Foundation of Washington (Winter 1937). Much of this 
work's data has been incorporated into Chatelaine (1941). 
Winter excavated portions of the City moat (adjacent to the 
Cubo line, on Castillo grounds); a portion of the west glacis at 
the west end of the south covered way; and also a portion of 
the Cubo redoubt at a point halfway between Malaga and Riberia 
Streets on Orange Street. 

This work resulted in a definition of the nature of the 
town's early defenses, including the Cubo redoubt. Of most 
relevance to the present study, however, was the glacis exca- 
vation. The results of the work are discussed in the section 
dealing with the 1979 glacis excavation, since Winter's work 
extended the data that was recovered then. 

Between 1939 and 1960, several reports on construction 
activities at the Castillo were prepared by Albert Manucy 



(1939, 1940, 1953, 1960), and contain information relevant 
to archeological concerns. Of particular interest is the 1960 
"Colonial Floors " report, which discusses excavations in the 
guardroom and sally port areas, and which offers information 
about floor construction, sequence and grades in the post- 
1738 Castillo. Specific data from this study is included 
with the sections dealing with the 1979 interior Castillo 
excavations . 

Manucy ' s 1940 report on relative depths of the moat 
through the history of Fort Marion provided information on 
moat construction, and on changing sea level and moat base 
elevations . 

In 1941, Thor Borrensen carried out a series of investi- 
gations to examine the foundations of the fort (Borrensen 
1941) and the moat. These took place in the northwest (St. 
Paul's) Bastion; in the south moat at 25 feet west of the 
drawbridge; in the "file" room (now the interpreter's office) 
and in the water battery. Borrensen and Manucy revealed the 
configuration and depths of the fort's foundation system which 
was completely consistent with that observed during the 1979 
excavation (see below). Data on movement of water in the moat 
was also recovered, as well as an assessment of its impact on 
the fabric of the foundation in the south moat. The impact 
of continuous water flow had resulted in a fault or space 
under the foundation at the moat. This situation was not pre- 
sent in the east battery due to the protection afforded by 
the fill. 



In 1955, Harrington, Manucy and Griffin published the 
results of their courtyard excavations. Structures dating to 
"before the 18th century renovations were located, a pre- 
Castillo aboriginal component was identified, and the colonial 
grade at about 1738 was established (ca. 10.25' MSL) . This 
study also provided the first stratigraphically controlled col- 
lection of material culture elements from the Castillo. 

Investigations of the defense line system took place in 
1963 with John Griffin's excavation of the Cubo defense line, 
resulting in its subsequent partial reconstruction. The final 
archeological work in the Castillo took place in 1973 when the 
courtyard well was excavated by Thomas Padgett. 

The material culture collections at the Castillo were 
analyzed, organized and assessed in 1975, and were revealed to 
have little archeological research potential (Deagan 1975). 

Relatively little has been learned about the Castillo from 
the archeology done between 1935 and 1975. The nature of the 
floors and their elevations in the guardroom has been determined, 
the presence and location of pre-1738 and pre-1756 structures 
in the courtyard have been confirmed; the presence of a pre- 
Castillo aboriginal component has been determined, a suggestion 
of the range of the material culture of the Castillo has been 
offered, and the presence of wooden platform furniture in the 
guardroom has been established. Additionally, the nature and 
construction details of the defense works have been learned, 
and the nature and condition of the south foundation and moat 
have been investigated. 



1979 Project Scone 

Many questions remain about the Castillo which can be 
answered through archeology. Many of these are of interest 
to anthropologists, to historians, to educators and to scholars r" 
although these questions are not necessarily of interest to a 
stabilization project. The following sections will discuss 
the scope of work carried out under the stabilization project, 
and discuss those specific questions which can be answered 
through those excavations which are justifiable through sta- 
bilization needs. Other anthropological, historical, archi- 
tectural and interpretive questions (answerable through archeo- 
logy) will be identified. These questions have been integrated 
into the research design when feasible, through the stabiliza- 
tion project, and are the subject of the report by Williams. 

The primary concern of this project is with data relating 
to stabilization and historic structure needs. Some of the 
questions relating to needs of management and interpretation 
have been inadvertantly answered in the course of answering 
questions relating to needs for stabilization and the historic 
structures report, and are therefore included as elements of 
this phase of the project. Data needed for stabilization 
includes information concerning the foundation conditions 
and configurations in many areas ; the moisture levels of sub- 
surface features and deposits; and the condition of exterior 
fort foundations as suggested by cracks in the scarp face. 
Information concerning the nature and conditions of wall footings, 
wood pilings below the fort, presence of sub-surface features 



in the ravelin, and the sub-surface moat walls is also required 
for stabilization purposes. 

Historic Structure Report needs include a delineation of 
the number and location of floors, their grades and their 
composition; the location of the pre-1738 floor plan and 
particularly the courtyard walls; the historic position of 
doorways and partition walls through the evolution of the 
Castillo; the location of interior wells, and other earlier 
features; and the presence, locations and nature of built-in 
furniture in the Castillo rooms. 

Management and interpretive needs include information 
about the functions of the various rooms in the Castillo,' the 
functions of such built-in features as the platforms in rooms 
1 and 14; information about activities in the fort, and examples 
of material culture assemblages typical of the various periods 
of fort occupancy. 

There are also several data areas within the Castillo 
that can be investigated through the excavations required to 
meet the needs of stabilization and the Historic Structures 
Report. These data areas include: 

1. Those elements of material culture and its patterning 
which can be considered "typical" or characteristic of a hispanic 
military site. The question of interest here is the degree 
to which this pattern is different from or similar to those 
patterns found in the domestic community of 18th century 
St. Augustine, and to those found on military sites elsewhere 
in North America (see South 1977). 



2. A guage of the extent to which non-hispanic elements 
(Indian, British, French) are present in the Castillo. As the 
center of activity in the hispanic town, and as the official 
locus of government power, it is to be expected that the 
Castillo may provide a "baseline of "hispanic" affiliation 
within the culturally heterogeneous St. Augustine community. 
This could provide a measure against which the hispanic affilia- 
tion of various ethnic groups in the community might he gauged. 

3. The possible location of pre-1672 fort remains, and the 
cultural materials associated with them. 

4. A delineation of the day-to-day activities of which took 
place in a hispanic military fortress. 

5. The changes apparent in all of the above data areas, as 
correlated with the changes in cultural occupation of the Cas- 
tillo. These questions are addressed in Williams (n.d.). 

While it is an explicit premise of the research design 

that the data needs outlined above are to be approached with 

the highest priority given to, and justification stemming from 

the needs of stabilization, certain specific points about 

archeological research at the Castillo (taken from Fischer 1979) 

should be made: 

"First, in the course of archeological investigation it will be 
necessary to destroy the archeological data. Careful considera- 
tion should therefore be given to recovering data in such manner 
and by such means that all questions that could conceivably 
be asked now or in the future will be answerable from the data. 
An acceptable research design must therefore involve matters 
beyond those specifically required for stabilization. 

"Second, the stabilization work to be conducted on the Castillo 
will make archeological resources in some cases inaccessible 
within a reasonable and foreseeable future. Efforts must 



12 



therefore be made at the time that this information is avail- 
able to answer certain questions we can foresee will eventually 
be asked. 

"A further consideration must be made, particularly in terms of 
the present needs. The Castillo is part of the larger site; 
St. Augustine itself, which relates to the Colonial history 
of change and development in western civilization. Ultimately, 
the social, cultural and political changes which lead from 
the Castillo to 20th century America are the anthropological 
fabric of the Castillo de San Marcos." 
(Fisher 1979:4-5). 

The following sections will discuss and assess the exca- 
vations in each area of the Castillo, with a summary of results 
relevant to stabilization and the Historic Structures Report 
included at the end. 

Methods and Controls 

Excavation took place for 9 weeks during the spring term 
with an 3 person crew, and 9 weeks during the summer term with 
a 4-5 person crew. 5 days were lost during the spring term 
due to rain, and 4 were lost during the summer term. During 
this time all materials recovered were washed, identified, cata- 
logued and tabulated, in addition to being excavated. 

It should be noted that a not inconsiderable amount of 
work time was lost due to the logistics of working a J a widely 
disparate (areally) site which functions as a major tourist 
attraction. In order not to muddy the Castillo grounds, it 
was necessary to build two stepped containment tanks into which 
the screens were placed, and which held the mud resulting from 
water screening. The water itself was channelled off into 
the moat. For each area of excavation, this system had to be 
dismantled, moved and rebuilt. Security problems required the 
transport of all equipment inside the Castillo each day; inclu- 



13 



ding the screens for water screening. Tourist barricades had 
to be constructed for each area of the site excavated; and 
large (5' x 3') signs which were made for tourist information, 
also had to be moved in and out of the Castillo each day. 
Through the resourcefulness and ingenuity of the NPS staff the 
logistical problems were solved; but did create time problems 
that excavation in isolated areas does not normally encounter. 

Units were excavated in natural stratigraphic zones, 
divided into arbitrary 15 cm. levels for vertical control. All 
soil discolorations and intrusions were mapped, recorded and 
removed seperately. All culturally deposited excavated soil was 
screened with water through %" hardware cloth. The single ex- 
ception to this was the material from the Seminole room, where 
water screening was not possible. Material from each discrete 
provenience was assigned a field specimen number consecutively 
throughout the site. 276 field specimen numbers were assigned 
to those intrusions which were clearly of cultural origin. These 
were assigned consecutively throughout the entire excavation 
(the Castillo was considered as a single site throughout the 
excavation and recording systems). 

The recording system included a field journal kept by the 
project supervisor; a field specimen catalog form; a feature 
form for each feature; a photo log (all photographs were logged 
and numbered) ; an excavation unit form which summarized the 
provenience and recording data for each excavated unit after 
its completion; a stratigraphic record form made out for each 
profile map; and a map catalog. 



Plane maps were made of all features and intrusions by le- 
vel; profile maps (sections) were made of earth walls of comple- 
ted units; and elevations were mapped for masonry walls inclu- 
ded in the excavation. 

All measurements were made using the metric system, and 
all elevations taken with a transit and stadia rod down from a 
datum plane of known sea level elevation. For this report, all 
elevations have been converted to meters above mean sea level. 
Table 1 shows the local datum and datum reference for each 
area excavated. Excavations inside the fort latrines used a 
line level extending from a known elevation to take depth 
measurements . 

Horizontal controls were established seperately for each 
area of the fort excavated, due to the limited nature of tes- 
ting. In all cases, excavation units were tied into and located 
by existing walls of the Castillo. Locations of individual 
units is given in the discussions of each area excavated. 
Artifacts, field records, maps and photos are presently being 
curated at the Southeast Archeological Center, NPS . Eventual 
curation of the artifacts will be at the Castillo. 




-A 

3 

z 



I 



Table 1 . 
Locus 



Mean Sea Level Elevations: Excavation Datums CASA 1979 



Latum MSL Reference 



Local Latum 



South covered 
way 



5.735 



FGS-UGS seawall 

marker 

Marion Benchmark 

2.134 MMSL 

(USGS NPS-USLI) 



1.67 m. above top of 
ground at east side o| 
large cedar tree near 
center of south cover; 
way. 



Ravelin 



5.55 



south covered 
way datum 



2.19 m. above top of 
ground at Glacis (Tre: 
3-south covered way) 
Northeast corner (.23 
m. above south coverei 
way local datum) 



Water Battery 3.67 



south covered 
way datum 



North wall of shot 
furnace 43 cm. below 
peak of wall. 



Port interior 



4.67 



Ravelin datum ; 
Manucy 1941 sill 
elevations 



1.40 m. above pavemen" 
under exact center of 
sally port-court yard 
entrance arch. 



South Covered Way Excavations 

Pour excavation units were opened in the south covered 
way, in order to investigate the following: 

1 . The condition of the sub-grade coquina walls on the coun- 
terscarp wall and the south covered way wall. 

2. The condition of the floodlight electrical conduits at 
the south covered way wall and the counterscarp walls. 

3. Issues not directly related to stabilization, but for 
which the excavations were expected to yield data included: 

a. Nature of construction of the south covered way wall and 
counterscarp walls . 

b. Rate, origins, and extent of colonial fill in the south 
covered way. 

c. The location of colonial wells indicated on maps of the 
area. 

d. The stratigraphy of the glacis on the south side of the 
south covered way wall. 

Figure 2 shows the location of the trenches in the south 
covered way. These were designated as Trenches 1-3, which were 
subdivided into 1. 5-meter sections. The trenches were hori- 
zontally tied in to a datum point on the south covered way wall, 
which was at the exact intersection of the walls in the south- 
east corner of the south covered way. Table 1 shows the location 
and sea level elevation of the datum point, from which all ver- 
tical measurements were made. 

Trench 1 was extended for 9 meters into the south covered 
way, at a 90° angle from the north side of the south covered 




>-. 

to 

— 
v 

H 
CD 
> 
O 

- 
-p 

- 

o 
- 1 

CD 






:: 

CD 



■H 
O 

3 

•H 

-J 

rt 
o 

o 



C\i 

'•4 



way wall. The southeast corner of the unit was located on the 
south covered way wall, at a distance of 8.69 meters west of 
the inner southeast corner of the south covered way wall itself. 
The unit was 1.5 meters wide, and divided into six 1.5 x 1.5 meter 
units, designated from south to north as A-F. Section A of 
Trench 1 was additionally extended twice to the west. These 
extensions were made to better reveal the base of the wall, and 
also as a safety measure to counteract the extreme depth of the 
excavations adjacent to the wall itself. These extensions were 
adjacent to the west side of Trench 1, Section A, extending to the 
west. Extension A measured .75 x 1.5 meters, and section B, 
adjacent to the west side ofextension A, measured .75 x 1.0 meter 
(Figure 2). Trench 1, Section A and Extensions A and B were 
excavated to pre-Castillo subsoil in order to reveal the con- 
dition of the covered way wall's north side; to determine the 
nature and date of construction; to check the floodlight electri- 
cal conduit, and to provide a stratigraphic section of the co- 
vered way fill. Sections E and F were excavated only partially, 
as a test for the well location discussed below, and for evi- 
dence of south covered way stratigraphy and previous activity. 
These units were closed at .5 meters below ground surface (3.82 
MMSL) , for several reasons! These included: 

1) An objective was to locate the Second Spanish period well 
indicated on the 1785 Rocque map (Appendix 1, map 5 ). According 
to the map, the well would have been in the approximate position 
of Trench 1, Section F. No evidence for the well was encountered 
by the depth of 3.82 MMSL, although there was artif actual evi- 



i-J 



dence that the deposits at that level were of the second Spa- 
nish period. 

B . Other goals of the excavation, such as covered way strati- 
graphy and fill evidence had already been acheived in Test 
Trenches 2 and 3, and 1-A. 

C . This area was of no direct relevance to the stabilization 
program. 

Trench 2 was established adjacent to the counterscarp wall 
in the position shown in Figure 2.. The trench was 3 meters by 
2 meters with its long axis oriented along the counterscarp 
wall, in such a manner that the north profile of the unit would 
include the counterscarp south face. This unit was excavated to 
a depth of 1.42 m. (2.61 MMSL) at which point the stabilization 
goals had been met, and the size of the unit precluded, for 
safety reasons, that excavation be continued to a greater depth. 

Trench 3 was located on the south side of the covered way 
wall, directly in line (but on, the opposite side of the wall 
from) Trench 1. The northeast corner of this unit was on the 
south side of the covered way wall, at a distance of 8.69 meters 
west of the inner southeast corner of the covered way wall itself. 
Its dimensions were 1.5 meters by 3 meters, with the long axis 
oriented north-south. The purpose of this unit was to reveal 
the sub-grade condition of the south side of the covered way 
wall, and secondarily, to document the construction and strati- 
graphy of the glacis. Its placement was selected to provide a 
continuous section through the wall. Section A of this trench, 
located adjacent to the wall, was excavated to a depth of 



1.71 rn. (1.37 MMSL). Although neither sterile soil nor the 
base of the wail itself had been revealed at this point, 
stabilization priorities were net, and it was deemed in the 

interest oT tine and other pressing stabilization needs to 
close the unit at that level. 
Ar cheo l o ~ical Data 
Trench _1, Sections E-F 

These sections of Trench 1 will be considered as a single 
unit since they were adjacent, revealed no differences in depo- 
sit, and section E was disturbed by modern materials, such as 
aluminum foil, plastic and 7 -Up bottle glass, to the base of 
excavation . 

Four stratigraphic zones were encountered in the excavation 
unit, and were excavated in four levels. The u pernios t zone 
consisted of modern dark humus and ^rrass sod, extending from 
U . 32 MMSL to 4.17 MMSL. The lowest two zones in the unit probably 
dated to the American oeriod of occupation intthe first half 



'■'na 10{-jh r> o f| f" 1 1 t» x r 

w/.i— i . Oil ^/uii uul ■ 



one a o o v e 



t" O Q — O 



.s i/irii 



of crushed shell and grey-black soil had a charred apoearance, 

and suggested that a fire-related event took place at some time 
near the middle of the 19th century (since it is above early 19th 
century levels and contained a fragment of whiteware). Sections 
E-7 are in the ao roximate location of the Sergeant's house known 



entury (see Historic 



to have seen present during the 19th 
Section-American Period). The lower three 



o ■*--» o ^ ^* r\ n p 



l'oIv associated with that occupation 



72 



Table 2. South Covered Way Provenience Guide 

Datum: 5.73 MMSL (all elevations in meters above sea 



lev^ 



Trench 1, Section A (South Covered day 



wall) 



.PS# 


Provenience 




Top 


Base 


TPQ 


Cultural 
Association 


12,14, 
17,20 


Levels 1 


-4 




4.36 


3.75 


Plastic, Alu- 
minum 


Modern electr 
conduit distu 


21 


Levels 5 


-6 




3.75 


3.28 


B/W Delft 


1762 fill 


49 


Level 7 






3.28 


3.11 


Pig Springs Poly-original sou 
chrome covered way f 


54 


Level 8 






3.11 


2.93 


Iron nails 


ii 


58 


Level 9 






2.93 


2.78 


PH Morro ware 


ii 


57 


Level 10 






2.78 


2.68 


Brown salt gla- 
zed stoneware 


it 


71 


Level 1 1 






2.68 


2.51 


San Marcos 


ii 


26 


Area 1 , 


Level 


1 


3.72 


3.59 


. White salt gla- 
zed stoneware 


1762 south co 

ed way fill 


32 


Area 1 , 


Level 


2 


3.59 


3.38 


Kaolin Pi pes tern 


n 


25 


Area 2, 


Level 


1 


3.77 


3.37 


White salt gla- 
zed stoneware 


M 


30 


Area 2, 


Level 


2 


3.76 


3.36 


White salt gla- 
zed stoneware 


ii 


50 


Area 2, 


Level 


3 


3.36 


3.23 


San Marcos 


ii 


51 


Area 2, 


Level 


4 


3.23 


3.00 


San Marcos 


ii 


Tr 


ench 2, Sec 


tion A (counterscarp) 








Levels 1 


-3 




4.01 


3.46 


Cement conduit, 
electrical wire 






Level 4 






3.46 


3.18 


Ichtucknee B/W 


Secondary fil 
deposit: 18th 
covered way 




Level 5 






3.18 


3.00 


Pig Springs 
Polychrome 


it 




Level 6 






3.00 


2.85 


St. Johns 


ii 




Level 7 






2.85 


2.60 


San Marcos 


n 




Level 8 






2.60 


dis- St. Johns 
continued 


ii 




Area 1 






3.63 


3.37 


Mexican Red Film 




Area 2 






3.54 


3.35 


San Marcos 


it 




Area 3 






3.34 


3.20 


San Marcos 


ii 




Area 6, 


Level 


1 


3.01 


2.84 


San Marcos 


" 



Table 2, cont'd. South Covered Way Provenience Guide 



FS# 


Provenience 




Top 


Base 


TPQ 






Cultural 
Associatio 




Area c 


>» 


Level 


2 


2.84 


2.34 


San Marcos 




secondary fill 
posit: 18th c. 
vered way 




Area 1 


r 


Level 


1 


2.93 


3.67 


San Marcos 






ii 




Area 1 


' 


Level 


2 


3.67 


3.49 


San Marcos 






ii 




Area 1 


P 


Level 


3 


3.49 


2.33 


San Marcos 










Trench 3» 


S ection 


A 


(Glacis) (Elevati 


ons at north 


end of 


trench) 


22 


Level 


1 






5.72 


5.31 


Aluminum 




Modern disturba 


23 


Level 


2 






5.31 


5.17 


Plain faience 


18th c. fill (s 
condary) 


35-36 


Level 


3 






5.17 


4.97 


Ichtucknee 
. B/W 






ii 


39-40 


Level 


4 






4.97 


4.84 


White salt gl; 
zed stoneware 


3.- 


M 


47 


Level 


5 






4.84 


4.61 


Olive jar 






ii 


55 


Level 


6 






4.61 


4.45 


Iron nail 






n 


59 


Level 


7 






4.45 


4.31 


San Marcos 






ii 


53 


Level 


8 






4.31 


4.16 


Aboriginal 


PI; 


ain 


H 


68 


Level 


9 






4.16 


4.02 


Aboriginal 


Plain 


ii 


68 


Feature 


4 (Fill) 


4.72 


4.39 


San Marcos 






ii 


43 


Pit 1 


(Fill) 




4.71 


4.61 


Clay daub 






ii 



Other than several shallow soil discolorations which 
yielded no cultural remains, a single feature (Feature l) 
was encountered in this unit. The feature was a pipe trench, 
intruding from the upper humus zone, and expending to 3.64 
MMSL. At that depth it contained a PVG— plastic pipe. Exca- 
vation was suspended and visqueen lining placed in these units 
at 3.77 MMSL prior to backfilling. 
Trench 1, Sections A, Extensions A and B 

These units will also "be discussed as a single unit, 
since they have spatial and depositional continuity, and con- 
sidered together, provide evidence for the electrical conduit 
condition as well as 4 meters of profile along the north face 
of the covered way wall. 

The units were excavated to a depth of 1.90 meters below 
surface (2.46 MMSL), in 11 levels. Figure 3 shows the soil 
profile and wall elevations, and Table 3 the distribution of 
artifacts in the levels and intrusions of the unit. Since it 
became apparent that virtually all of the excavated material 
was secondary fill brought into the south covered way as part 
of the defense construction, only the west half of each level 
was screened to provide an accurate and comparable dating 
sample for each level. 

Nearly 1.8 meters of fill were added to the south covered 
way over its history, adjacent to the covered way wall. This 
was done in 4 major zones; most recently represented by "A", 
modern humus and sod. Below this zone (extending from 4.36 
MMSL to 4.16 MMSL) was a fill layer of .8 meters in thickness 



QATUM 



SOUTH 
COVERED WAY 
WALL 



c I s 




3ASc OF EXCAVATION 



■TRENCH I SECTION A WEST WALL 



KEY TO SOIL PROFILES 



4 i~.urr.us 
■and wi shell fleck: 



wi sne.. 



FIGURE 3 
South Covered Way: 
Trenches 1 & 3 
West Profiles, 

Section through sew 
Wall 



.eckinz 
' r.e 



A- modern duff 

5- grey— brown ; 

C- nee. brown sand 

D- dark brown sand wi shell fleck 

E- li.-.nt brown sand wi shell fleck 

?- r.ed. brown sand wi whole shell 

j- Tied, brown sand 

11 t lirr.t brown sand 

I- tar. sand 

J- darK -rey-orcvn sand 

':'.- sold sterile sand 

1- mottled yellow ,jccld, brown, tan 



a an 





nott led 


veil 


ow ,brow 


n sand 






wi she 


11 fl 


ecki 


-.: 






- 


tan san 


d wit 


h :r 


ush 


e d sne 


11 


- 


o v s t e r 


shel 


c- -. 


oti 


"5 




- 


tabby 


floor 












loose 


conce 


r.tra 


ted 


c o a u i 


.-.a 


- 


burnt 


soil, 


sne 




charcoal 




ceners 


te fl 


ccr 








- 


black 


n i d d e 


n 3 c 


il 


wi who 


le 


- 


dark z 


rown 


3C1_ 


fi _ 


whole 


5 r. 




:a.-K z 


rown , 


rcid 


sc 


i _ w i 


sne 



V- d 



Table 3. South Covered Way, Trench 1 Section A: Ceramics 



rtifact Description 



Level ^ 5 
west t 



iisnanic 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on white 

Fig Springs 
Polychrome 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Olive Jar, glazed 

El Morro 

Mexican Red Film 

TOTAL 

)xher European 

Blue on white 
Delft 

Polychrome Delft 

Blue on white 
Faience 

UiD Tin enamelled 
coarse earthenware 

Bisque 

Slipware 

Astbury ware 

Jackf ield 

UID Green glazed 
coarse earthenware 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

Brown salt-glazed 
stoneware 

White salt-glaze^ 
stoneware 

TOTAL 

boriginal 
St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stamped 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 1 



.083 
.083 



.083 



Area 1 
Level 1 



.083 



.167 
.083 



1 
8 



11 

D 



.075 
.02 5 



100 



100 



.025 

.02 5 
.025 



.025 
.200 

.125 

.275 
.*1 50 



Area 1 
Level 2 



.067 



Area 2 
Level 1 



067 



.467 
. 133 



i 
A 

1 

2 
5 



Area 2 
Level 2 



.083 
.083 



.083 



.083 
• 332, 

.083 
. 1 67 
.417 



1 

4 

2 
2 
: 

1 



.050 



.050 



.050 

.100 



.050 
.200 

.100 
.100 
.2 50 
.050 



Table 3, conx ' d." South" Covered Way, Trench 1 Section A: Ceramics 



ifact Description 



Area 2 
Level 4 



Level 7 



Level 8 



Level 9 



Level 10 



isoanic 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on white 

Fig Springs 
Polychrome 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed - 

Olive Jar, glazed 

El Morro 

Mexican Red Film 

TOTAL 

ther European 

Blue on Whixe 
Delft 

Polychrome Delft 

Blue on whixe 
Faience 

UID Tin enamelled, 
coarse earxhenware 

Bisque 

Slipware 

Astbury ware 

Jackf ield 

UID Green glazed 
coarse earthenwai 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

Brown saix-glazec. 
stoneware 

white salt-glazec 
stoneware 

TOTAL 

poriginal 

Sx. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Sxamnec 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped2 



429 

214 
143 



1 .029 



c12 

17 
2 

1 



029 
029 



088 



343 

,486 

057 

027 



7 

4 



118 

118 
235 



412 
235 



118 



b 
2 
3 
; 



1 .063 



1 .050 
1 .050 



-1 .063 



200 



200 

300 
100 
150 
150 



1 
2 



063 



063 

188 
063 
125 
500 



Table 3, cont'd. 



't ifact Description 



UID sherd-tempere<L 
UID Incised 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



Level 5 
west -§ 



7 .583 
10 .833 
12 .999 



Area 1 
Level 1 



Area 1 
Level 2 



6 
28 
40 



.•150 

.700 

1.000 



5 .333 

U .933 
15 1.000 



Area 2 
Level 1 



8 .667 



12 



.999 



Area 2 
Level 2 



15 
20 



.250 

.750 

1.000 



Are 
Lev 



10 
14 



Table 3, cont'd. 



: i fact Description 



Area 2 
Level 4 



Level 7 



Level 8 



Level 9 



Level 10 Leve 



fID sherd- tempered 
FID Incised 
Liscards 

TOTAL 
'OTAL CERAMICS 



2 
14 

H 



.072 

.143 
1 .000 

.999 



32 

35 



.914 
1 ,002 



13 
17 



.765 
1.001 



15 
20 



.050 

.750 
1.000 



14 
16 



.875 
1.002 



Table 4. South Covered Way. Trench 1 Section A: Non-Ceramic 
Material Culture (+-indicates presence) 



Art ifact Description 



Level 5 

i 



west 



Area 1 
Level 1 



Area 1 
Level 2 



Area 2 
Level 1 



Area 2 
Level 2 



Glass 

Greer- 
Clear 
Iron 

whole nails 

nail fragments 

tack 

window latch 

slag 

flakes/lumps 
Brass 

grommet 

button 
Kaolin Pipes 

stem 

Bowl 
Rock 

Chert 
Construction Material 



6 
4 



coquina 
Tabby 
mortar 
plaster 
brick 
Charcoal 



b 
2 

D 

2 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



Table 4. South Covered Way, Trench 1 Section A: Non-Ceramic 
Material Culture (+-indicates presence) 



















Area 2 
Level 4 


Level 7 


Level 8 


Level 9 


Level 10 


Leve 


tifact Lescriptio. 


i 












lass 














Green 














Clear 












1 


ron 














whole nails 






1 


1 






nail fragments 






1 








tack 














window latch 














slag 








+ 






flakes/lumps 








+ 


+ 


+ 


irass 














grommet 














button 














.aolin Pipes 














Stem 














Bowl 














.ock 














Chert 














onstruction Mater 


Lai 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




coquina 




+ 


Tabby 




+ 


+ 


+ 






mortar 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


plaster 














brick 




+ 


+ 


+ 


T 


+ 


harcoal 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


forked bone 


• 


h 


1 








/ 















(4.16 MMSL to 3.36 MMSL). This zone, designated "C", was 
comprised of medium brown sandy soil, with broken shell in- 
clusions (see Figure 3). The excavation units corresponding 
to Zone C in this section include all of levels 3, 4-, 5 and 
nearly all of level 6 (Level 6 not only was at the interface 
between zones C and D, but was almost completely intruded 
upon by Areas 1 and 2 in this unit). Levels 2, 3, and 4 
contained 20th century material disturbance (rubber wire insu- 
lation; 20-gauge shotgun shell) (see Table 3) but yielded 
predominantly first Spanish period remains. Level 5 con- 
tained only first Spanish period artifacts (although no 
dateable European wares), and it overlaid Areas 1 and 2, 
which contained material dating to the mid- 18th century 
(White salt glazed stoneware, Jackfield ware) as the TPQ. 
Level 6 was, as mentioned above, at the interface of two 
zones, and the very small amount of level 6 remaining around 
Areas 1 and 2 contained no dateable cultural materials. 
Zone C, therefore, represents the major filling portion 
activity in the south covered way known to have taken place 
in 1762 (Arana and Manucy 1977:57-53). Other than the few 
modern items disturbing the upper levels (and it seems quite 
likely that these are the results of the placement of the 
floodlights and their conduits in the unit) all of the ma- 
terial in Zone C dates to the 18th century first Spanish 
period. 

At 3.36 MMSL a change in soil color, content and texture 
occurred, and is designated in Figure 3 as Zone F. This 



-3 " 



actually appeared near the base of level 6, but was obscured 
by Areas 1 and 2 until the unit walls were cut back for pro- 
filing. Therefore, part of this zone was obscured by, and 
intruded upon by Areas 1 and 2, and was removed as such. 
Zone F was comprised of medium brown sandy soil, containing 
whole clam and oyster shells, and extended for a depth of 
36 cm. (3.36 MMSL to 3.00 MMSL). Level 7 consisted entirely 
of Zone F, and this level contained only 17th century (and 
earlier) materials (with a TPQ of 1600, provided by a sherd 
of Ichtucknee Blue on White majolica) . Historical data, 
however, allows us to extend the TPQ for this provenience 
to 1675, as the earliest period of construction for the Cas- 
tillo. 

The base of Zone F appeared in level 8 (3.11 MMSL to 
2.98 MMSL) at 3.00 MMSL. At this point areas of yellow and 
brown mottled soil with crushed shells were apparent, which 
upon excavation, were revealed as a zone of soil disturbed 
by the initial construction of the south covered way wall. 
This appears in Figure 3 as Areas "E", "B", and "M" . Its 
nature became apparent with the appearance of the oyster 
shell footing which occurred below these areas, near the base 
of level 8, at 2.98 MMSL. This footing was of packed whole 
and crushed oyster shells, as well as packed building rubble, 
and apparently was packed into a footing trench approximately 
35 cm. deep. No evidence for a builders trench was found. 
Level 9 was adjacent to the footing itself, and was excavated 
from 2.93 MMSL to 2.78 MMSL. The fill of level 9 was the 



SOUTH COVERED WAY WALL 

(NORTH FACE) 




i i ?ao?iL; 

1 e c k i r. ~ 
ieckir.s: 

flecking 
r. e 1 i 



A- modern duff i humus 

3- grey-brown 3 and wi sneil 

C- ~.ed . brown sand wi sr.eli 

D- car'< brown sand wi shell 

E- lisjht crown sand wi shell 

?- r.ec. brown sand wi whole 

j- -ad . orown sane 

ii-r iirht crown sand 

I- ran sand 

J- lark srrey-orown sand 

r'- -old sterile sand 

1- r.otcled ''silow ,~"ld , crown, can sar. 



d yellow /crown sand 
wi sneil flecking 
M-iar. sand vicr. crus.nea sneil 
3- oyster snsll footing 
? - - a c s y fleer 

2- Icose concentrated cccy-ir.2 
?.- burnt soil, sneil charcoal 

3- concrete flocr 
T> clack -idaen soil vi whole 
: J- dark crown soil wi whole 5 
V- iark brown, rcld sell wi z: 



O'.^^^^J 






SOLID MORTAR LEDGE 
WITH RU88LE 



PACKED RUBBLE 



' nPe o P. o * V-.V-S 



o 



'Soo e ^ .''niQ^fl »-.-c=- 



^ O^.i-1 r?\ ". r° (^—OYSTER SHELL 






CAS A 

ELEVATION 2 
5-1-79 
DEAGAN 
SCALE 1 = 10 



5 10 



20 30 



4C 



loCM 



FIGURE ii 
louth Covered Way Wall - ilorth Elevation 







/'-j im tiftiiiri'- _ 



FIGURE 5 
South covered way wall, sub-grade elevation 



yellow and brown mottled soils of Zone D, although near the 
base of the level, at 2.77 MMSL, an area of dark brown, humic 
rich soil with many whole shells was encountered. This dark 
humic layer is designated "T" on Figure 3, and is a remnanx 
of the aboriginal, pre-fort midden now known to extend through- 
out the entire site (see discussion below in Glacis section) . 

Level 10 and level 11 (2.78 MMSL to 2.63 MMSL and 2.63 
MMSL to 2.46 MMSL respectively) were comprised of gold-brown 
sandy soil, without apparent inclusions. This fill was not, 
however, sterile, since both levels contained aboriginal ma- 
terial, and level 10 contained a fragment of brown salt glazed 
stoneware, dating it to the first Spanish period (Brown salt 
glazed stonewares can occur in Bellarmine forms from the 
early 16th century). These levels extended below the base 
of the oyster shell footing (see below), and excavation was 
discontinued at the base of level 11 (2.46 MMSL). 

In summary, the soil profile from Trench 1, Section A 
and Extensions A and B reveal a sequence of fill and construction 
in the south covered way from the 17th century to the present 
day. Three major zones of filling were apparent: Areas E, 
B, and M of mottled yellow and brown soil, which were associated 
with the initial construction of the south covered way wall, and 
which contained predominantly aboriginal and 17th century artifacts 
Zone F, which was of brown sandy soil with whole shell inclu- 
sions and which was deposited shortly after the completion of 
the covered way wall footing and at least the lower courses of the 
wall. This Zone F contained aboriginal and 17th century Spanish 



materials. Above Zone F was Zone C, a 1.8 meter thick depo- 
sit of medium brown sandy soil with crushed shells. The lower 
levels of this deposit (below about 3.75 MMSL) contained ma- 
terials of the 18th century, and the upper levels were dis- 
turbed by the placement of the floodlight and its conduits. 
It would appear, however, that the zone was deposited at some 
time after the mid- 18th century, most likely with the filling 
activity of 1762. The uppermost zone, Zone A, consists of 
modern humic deposit and sod placement. 

Ground level at the time of initial wall construction 
was probably at about 3.06 MMSL, which coincides with the top 
of the wall footing and its associated Area 5. This was then 
apparently filled at a later date to an elevation of approxi- 
mately 3.75 MMSL, which coincides with the top of Zone F and 
the base of Zone C. The considerable discontinuity between 
the zones as well as the differences in the nature of their 
contents indicates that this level at about 3. 75 MMSL was the 
ground surface adjacent to the wall at a point in time at or 
shortly after the mid 18th century (probably 1762). The arti- 
factual contents of Zone F and the areas below it do not indi- 
cate a long enough range to suggest whether Zone P was a 
gradual accumulation between initial wall construction and 
the mid 18th century, or whether Zone P was deposited immediately 
following construction of the south covered way wall. Archi- 
tectural features suggest that the zone was a gradual accumu- 
lation, since, as Figure 3 clearly shows, there is a mortar 
ledge 3-24 MMSL, near the base of Zone F. This ledge, which 



rests above the shell footing, would seem to be a logical 
index of prior ground surface, since it is above the footing, 
directly above the areas of disturbance associated with the 
footing, and is a squared and regular ledge extending 5 cm. 
northward from the face of the wall. Zone J was therefore 
probably deposited gradually up to 3.75 MMSL during the first 
half of the 18th century. Zone C was thus deposited in the 
same manner during the second half of that century. This was 
most probably the filling done in 1762 (Arana and Manucy 1977: 
57), with subsequent accumulation through use. 
The South Covered Way Wall 

Figures 3 and 4 show the north elevation of the south 
covered way wall, and the wall section respectively. Today 
the wall is comprised of 2.90 meters of coursed coquina 
blocks over oyster footing, mortared together with thick 
(5 to 11 cm.) lime mortar. At about .66 meters above the 
present ground surface (5.02 MMSL) the coquina blocks are 
smaller and less regular, and the mortar bonds contain con- 
siderable shell and coquina rubble. It could be suggested 
that this point on the wall represents the top of the wall 
when the ground surface was at the 2.40 level discussed above. 

The 2.30 meters of coquina block rest on a ledge of mor- 
tar mixed with rubble, which is approximately 18 cm. thick, 
and extends outward for 5 cm. to the north from xhe wall. At 
between 3.11 MMSL and 3.16 MMSL the mortar ledge rests on the 
footing itself. Figure 5 shows a small section of the wall 
face elevation, and that portion reveals the dual nature of 



the footing. It is variably comprised of either packed 
oyster shell, or packed building rubble, brick and shell 
along its length. The footing itself is 35 to 45 cm. deeo 
and the base elevation is 2.76 MMSL. 

The wall itself leans strongly to the north, at a slope 
f about 5 U north. The north face is not plastered, although 
the south face, revealed in the excavation of Trench 3 on 
the glacis, is plastered to below 3.87 MMSL. (point of exca- 
vation suspension) which coincides with level 4 in Trench 1 
S ection A. 



m 



The Glacis Excavation 

Trench 3 (Figure 2) was located on the south side of the 
south covered way wall, opposite Trench 1. It was excavated 
in order to see the condition of the wall's south side at 
below grade, and also to learn about the construction of the 
glacis at that point.. 

Figure 3 shows the profile section of the west earth walls 
of Trench 3 and Trench 1, as well as a section of the south 
covered way wall at that point. Figure 6 shows the souxh face 
of the south covered way wall. 

Excavation was carried to a depth of 1.70 meters below 
ground surface adjacent to the wall. At this point the wall 
was no longer plastered, suggesting that this was the grade 
prior to the final construction of the wall. Support for this 
interpretation is provided by the fact that in 1762, six feet 
of wall was added on the south covered way (Arana and Manucy 
1977:57); and the distance from the top of the extant wall to 



40 








FIGURE 6 

South Covered Way Wall - South Elevation 
(Glacis side) 



the base of the plaster is 1.84 meters or 6.01 feet. There- 
fore the 1761 glacis grade was at 5.35 MMSL (1.70 meters below 
surface) . 

The entire profile shown in Figure 3 is of various fill 
deposits made to build up the glacis. This was excavated in 
9 levels. The latest dating item in the 9 levels (see Table 
3B) was a sherd of white salt glazed stoneware found in level 
3, firmly placing the deposit in its expected historical con- 
text. 

The 1931 excavation of the glacis done by Winter extends 
our understanding of glacis stratigraphy. He found the south 
covered way wall to have been 10.5 feet (3.2 meters) in height, 
near the juncture of the Cubo line and the covered way. Two 
fill deposits were noted; a primary fill adjacent to, and slo- 
ping downward away from, the wall, and a layer of secondary fill 
overlapping the primary fill at about halfway between the co- 
vered way wall and the present day parking lot area. 

The primary fill (which appears to have been virtually 
the same deposit as that excavated in this project), extended 
adjacent to the wall to a depth of 8.83 feet (2.70 meters). At 
that level, a layer of dark humus overlying "marsh muck" was 
encountered; and water was encountered at 14 feet (4.28 meters) 
below surface. The "marsh muck" encountered by Winter is within 
2 cm. of layer "T" in the Trench 1 profile (Figure 3). This 
was a layer of black midden soil with whole shells. Subsequent 
excavation in other fort areas; in both 1956 (Harrington, 
Manucy and Griffin) and 1979, have revealed that this black 



layer of soil extends under the entire area of the site 
(except where th3 moat excavations removed it). Inside the 
fort, the layer was encountered at 2,70 MMSL. Winters found £t 
at roughly 2.73 MMSL, and it was at about 2.80 MMSL in the 
covered way itself. 

The Counterscarp 

Excavations in this unit revealed that the counterscarp 
wall at the location of the unit (see above) was in stable con- 
dition. 8 levels were excavated in this area, to a depth of 
2.63 MMSL (1.4 meters below ground surface). Figures 7 and 8 
show the face of the counterscarp wall elevation; and Table 5 
shows the distribution of artifacts in the fill. 

The entire area excavated was apparently secondary fill 
deposited during the first Spanish period. The unit was dis- 
turbed by the wiring system for the floodlight on the moat 
side of the counterscarp, both in the wall itself (see Figure 
8), and along the south side of the excavation unit, where a 
cement box conduit for other electrical wires had disturbed 
the upper jr.hree levels. 

The upper 1.03 meters of the counterscarp wall was of a 
double thickness, two courses wide (1 meter). Below this point, 
a recess was present and the wall continued downward in a 
single course, 45 to 50 cm. wide (north-south). The top of 
the wall itself assumed a "Z" shaped configuration in the exca- 
vation unit, due to the presence of the moat stairs. At 2.00 
meters below the top of the wall a large discoloration was 
■present, encircling the portion of the wall extending into the 



excavation unit (Area 6). This appears to have been a con- 
struction pit used for repairing, or possibly constructing, 
the second (inner) course of this portion of the wall. If 
it was a construction pit, it suggests that the ground surface 
at the time of that construction would have been at about 
3.01 MMSL. This is 28 cm. below that level in the south 
covered way trench which was suggested as the pre- 1762 covered 
way grade. This difference is minimized, however, when the 
fact that present ground surface between the two pits varies 
by 35 cm. (counterscarp being lower); thus a real difference 
of only 7 cm. is present. 

The tentative interpretation at this time is that the 
original counterscarp wall top was at an elevation of circa 
3.00 MMSL, or 1 meter below today's ground surface at the 
counterscarp pit. During the 1762 work in the south covered 
way, the wall was heightened by 1 meter; and made 1 meter 
thick instead of the 50 cm. thickness apparent below that 
point. Then levels 5 to 1 were added as fill, bringing the 
area up to its present grade. 

It is also of interest that the materials in level 6 
and below are highly typical of an early historic Indian 
village. Proportions of artifacts from the fill are very 
similar to those from nearby aboriginal sites (Vernon 1979, 
Williams n.d. ) and suggests that a nearby aboriginal site 
may have been relocated to the Castillo south covered way during 
the 17th century, as part of the filling process. 



COUNTERSCARP WALL 



MORTAR 



COOUINA 



SPACE 




-TRENCH 2 SECTION A NORTH FACE- 



CASA 

ELEVATION 
.4-30-79 
DEAGAN 
SCALE MO 



'OrlLIS 



-.ccerr. auff \ r.ur.us 

rrey-brown sand wi shell flecking 

?.ed . brown sand wi shell fleekine 

:ar'< brown sane .-/i shell fleckir.r 

Li-ht brown sand wi snell flecking 

ned. brown sar.d wl vr.ole shell 

*ed . brewn sar.d 

Lirrht brawn sand 

:an sand 

iarv: ~rey-crown sar.d 

:old sterile sand 

r.ottled yellow ,-oid , crown, ran sand 



5 10 20 30 40 50 CM 



'■'-mottled yellow ,brown sand 

wi shell flecking 
ii- r .an sand with crushed shell 
3- oyster shell footing 
?- tabby floor 

'•- loose concentrated coo.uina 
?.- surnt soil, snell cnarcoal 
S- concrete floor 

?- clacx ^lidoen soil .vi rfhoie shell 
r J- dark crown soil wi rfnoie snell 
V- dar!< brown, roid soil wi shells ' 



7IGUr.£ 7 

South Covered ;ay, Trench 2, Section k 
Counterscarp wall, Morth 1-ace 




r n i in t. <=> ■ 






'.Table 5 . _jwjmnxersc.ar-p^ iouxn-^everea- w-ay-,- irencn <^ becxion a 
Ceramics 



tifact Description 



Level 4 



ispanic 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on Elue 

Fig Springs Polyf 
chrome 

UID Polychrome 
Majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Mexican Red Film 

TOTAL 

ther European 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 
boriginal 



St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stampe 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamp 
UID Fiber-temper 

Weeden Island 

Plain 

discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



083 



.083 

. 167 



5 
fi 2 

>d3 
id 



417 
167 

250 



Level 5 



Level 6 



.034 



.138 
.034 
.207 



10 
12 



.833 

1 .000 



7 
3 
4 

7 
2 



.241 
.103 
.138 
.241 
.069 



23 
29 



793 

998 



500 



.500 

1.000 
1.000 



Level 7 



1 1.000 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 



Level 8 



1 1.000 



1 1.000 133 



1 1.000 



Table 5, "cont r dT 



4 T- 



Countersc'arp, South Covered Way, Trench 2 
Section A: Ceramics 



tifact Description 



Area 2 



Area 3 



Area 6 
Level 1 



Area 6 
Level 2 



Area 7 
Level 1 



lspanic 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on blue 

Fig Springs 
Polychrome 

UID Polychrome 
Majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Mexican Red Film 

TOTAL 

ther European 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 

boriginal 



St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stampe 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamp 
UID Fiber-temper 
Weed en Island PI 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



1 
4 
d 3 
d 

in 
1 

15 
15 



333 

067 
267 
200 



.133 
1 .000 
1 .000 



083 

250 
250 



5 .417 
12 1.000 
12 1.000 



1 1 



103 
231 
154 



.282 



39 1.001 



39 1.001 



18 
7 

11 

17 



13 
66 
66 



273 
106 
167 
258 



.197 
1 .001 
1 .001 



250 



250 



2 .500 
4 1.000 
4 1.000 



2 

10 
10 



Table 5, contr^rr 



-(roun"trers"carp," b'outh Covered Way, Trench 2 
Section A:Ceramics 



















Area 7 
Level 3 


- 










ifact Description 














ispanic 














Ichtucknee Blue 
on Blue 














Pig Springs 
Polychrome 














UID Polychrome 
Majolica 














Olive Jar, 
unglazed 














Mexican Red Film 














TOTAL 


- 








~ 




ther EuroDean 














UID coarse 














earthenware 












* 


TOTAL 


- 












borieinal 














St. Johns Plain 














St. Johns Stamper 


1 












San Marcos Plain 














San Marcos Stamp 


5d 












UID Fiber-temper 


=d 












Weed en Island 

Plain 














discards 














UID Aboriginal 


2 1.000 












TOTAL 


2 1.000 












TOTAL CERAMICS 


2 1.000 


» 











Table 5. Counterscarp, South Covered Way, Trench 2 
Section A: Non-Ceramic Material Culture 
(+-indicates presence) 







j - uuj - *■"=* v "~ kj ±- 


-i. "^ K*> V_ i X ^_, \_ J 










Level 4 


Level 5 


Level 6 


Level 7 


Level 8 


Are; 


ifact Description 














ass 














Green 




1 










Clear 




1 . 










•on 














whole nail 






• 








nail fragment 










- 


t 


slag 


+ 










- 


flakes/lumps 


+ 


+ 








■ 


pper fragment 














rked bone 










- 




Larcoal 


+ 








+ 




ck 














quartz 


1 












quartzite 


1 






- 






sandstone 














chert 














slate 














nstruction Materia 


il 


+ 


+ 








coquina 






tabby- 






+ 








mortar 


+ 


+ 


+ 








plaster 


+ 












daub 




+ 






+ 




brick 


+ 


+ 








-+ 


flat tile 


• 


h 










- 















Table 5, cont'd. 



■ >J 



Counterscarp, South Covered Way, Trench 2 
Section A: Non-Ceramic Material Culture 
(♦-indicates presence) 



Area 2 



A rtifact Description 



Area 3 



Area 6 
Level 1 



Area 6 
Level 2 



Area 7 
Level 1 



Are; 
Lev* 



a-lass 

Green 

Clear 
iron 

whole nail 

nail fragment 

slag 

flakes/lumps 
Copper fragment 
forked bone 
<harcoal 
lock 

quartz 

quartzite 

sandstone 

chert 

slate 
'obstruction Material 



coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

daub 

brick 

flat tile 



Table 5, . oani. ?. & - . 



•Count-ersG-a-rp-,- -South- Covered Way, Trench 2 
Section A : Non-Ceramic Material Culture 
(+-indicates presence) 















r 




Area 7 


PPM 1 












Level 3 












;ifact Description 














•lass 














Green 














Clear 














ron 














whole nail 














nail fragment 














slag 














flakes/lumps 




+ 










iopper fragment 














/orked bone 










-" 




-harcoal 




+ 










tock 














quartz 














quartzite 














sandstone 














chert 














slate 














lonstruction Mater: 


.al 


+ 










coquina 






tabby 














mortar 


+ 


+ 










plaster 


+ 












daub 














brick 




+ 










flat tile 


• 


v 










i 















Table 6. Glacis, Trench 3 Section A: Ceramics 



ifact Description 



Level 2 



Level 3 
north 5 



Level 4 
north a 



Level 5 
north | 



Level 6 
north t 



050 



050 
050 

150 



.isoanic 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on Blue 

Ichtucknee Blue 
on White 

UID Plain 
Majolica 

UID Blue on 
white Majolica 

Olive Jar, plain 

Olive Jar, glazed 

El Morro 

Mexican Red Film 

Rey ware 

TOTAL 

ther European 

Blue on white 
Delft 

Plain Faience 2 . 1 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

White salx-glazet 
stoneware 

TOTAL .10 
boriginal 

St. Johns Plain .050 

St. Johns Stamped 1 .050 

San Marcos Plain 4 .200 

San Marcos Stamp^d4 .200 
UID sand-tempered 
UID grit-tempered 
UID sherd-tempered 

discards 5 .250 

TOTAL 15 .7 50 

TOTAL CERAMICS 20 1.000 



19 
23 



,043 

043 

087 



174 



174 

304 
174 



174 
326 
.999 



1 

3 

3 

2 





2 



,081 
027 



.027 

.135 



.027 



.027 

.027 
.081 

.216 
.054 



.081 

.054 



14 .378 
29 .784 
37 1.000 



4 

18 
21 



048 



048 



.095 

.095 

333 
048 
095 
190 



190 
857 
999 



.500 



.250 



.250 
1.000 
1.000 



>3- 



Table 6, cont'd. Glacis, Trench 3 Section A '.Ceramics 





















Level 8 
north t 


Level 9 
north 4 


Featt; 


.re 4 


Pit 1 






.fact Description 
















.s panic 
















Ichtucknee Blue 
on blue 
















Ichtucknee Blue 
on White 
















UID Plain 
Majolica 
















UID Blue on 
White Majolica 
















Olive Jar, plain 






1 


.050 








Olive Jar, glazed 












„- 




El Morro 
















Mexican Red Film 
















Rey ware 
















TOTAL 


- 


- 


1 


.050 


- 






;her European " . 
















Elue on White 
Delft 






2 


. 100 








Plain Faience 
















UID coarse 

earthenware 


2 .200 


1 . 100 












White salt -glazed 
stoneware 






2 


. 100 








TOTAL 


2 .200 


1 . 100 


4 


.200 








^original 
















St. Johns Plain 


4 .4-00 


4 .400 


6 


.300 








St. Johns Stamped 


2 .200 








1 .500 






San Marcos Plain 






6 


.300 








San Marcos Stampe 


a 1 .100 




2 


.100 








UID sand-tempered 
















UID grit-tempered 
















UID sherd-tempere 


i ' 


3 .300 












discards 


1 . 100 


2 .200 


5 


.250 


1 .500 






TOTAL 


8 .800 


9 .900 


19 


.950 


2 1.000 






TOTAL CERAMICS 


10 1.000 


10 uooo 


20 


1.000 

; 


2 1.000 







Table 7. Glacis, Trench 3, Section A: Non-Ceramic Material 
Culture (+-indicates presence) 



Artifact 
>escription 



Level 2 



Level 3 
north s 



Level 4 
north i 



Level 5 
north -§ 



Level 6 
north a 



Level 7 
north t 



lass 

green 

clear 
ron 

whole nails 

nail fragmerjt 

slag 

flakes /lumps 

iron tack 

ipes 

Kaolin Pipe 
stem 

Bowl 
ock 

chert 
orked bone 
oal 

harcoal 
onstruction K 



2 

1 1 

+ 
4 



1 
2 

3 

S 



axerial 



coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

brick 

daub 

red tile 

barrel xile 

slate 



+ 



1 
1 

5 
2 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



Table 7, cont'd. Glacis, Trench 3, Section A: Non-Ceramic 

Material Culture (^--indicates presence) 



rtif act 
escription 



Level 8 
north t 



Level 9 

north t 



Feature 4 



Pit 1 



lass 
green 
clear 

ron 



whole nails 




nail fragmen 


z 


slag 




flakes/lumps 


+ 


tack 




'ines 




Kaolin stem 




Bowl 




.ock 




chert 




orked bone. 




oal 




charcoal 


+ 


construction M 


aterial 



coquma 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

brick 

daub 

red tile 

barrel tile 

slate 



6 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



South Covered Way Summary 

Excavations in this area revealed masonry conditions and 
floodlight conduit conditions for the south covered way and 
counterscarp walls. In addition, information about filling 
activities in the area was gathered. 

The earliest archeologically documented activity in the 
area was an aboriginal occupation of widespread extent. This 
is a black soil and whole shell midden, approximately .^5 
meters thick and at an average elevation of 2.80 MMSL. The 
contents suggest that this was a late St. Johns Ila or b 
occupation. There is no indication, however, that the abori- 
ginal village represented here was occupied during historic 
times. The earliest documented historic activity is that of 
the initial south covered way and counterscarp walls; and the 
fill between them. This filling raised the grade to approxi- 
mately 3.35 MMSL, some 55 cm. The deposit designated "F" in 
Trench 1, Section A, represents this activity, and contains 
only aboriginal and 17th century material. 

The 3.35 MMSL grade was established either during the 
initial 1672-95 construction period or during the 1733-56 
renovations. This was followed by 1 meter of fill in 1762, 
heightening of the counterscarp wall by 1 meter and xhe 
covered way wall by 1.8 meters. At this time the glacis 
was filled to approximately its present elevation. 

The final archeologically documented activity in the 
area (other than placement of the floodlights) was the pre- 
sence and subsequent burning of a wooden structure during 



the second half of the 19th century, in the east end of the 
covered way. This was most likely the house of Sergeant 
Brown, known to have been in that vicinity. Deposits in 
Trench 1, Sections E and F reflect the presence of this struc' 
ture. 

Ravelin Excavations 

Three test units, shown in Figure 9, were excavated in 
the western half of the ravelin. Excavations were done here 
in order to: 

1 . Check the sub-grade ravelin walls for deterioration con- 
tions . 

2. Investigate the pre-1763 powder magazine known to have 
been in the northwest corner of the ravelin, and which was 
located on the 1763 Castello nap. 

3. Locate other evidence of sub-grade features prior to 
ravelin surface stabilization. 

4. Investigaxe the filled-in area opposite (to the west C f> 
the present steps into the ravelin, where early maps (see 
below) indicated that a mirror-image set of steps was 
originally present. 

Consequently, TS (Test Square) 1 was located opposite and 
to the west of the extant stairs; TS 2 was located in the 
northeast corner of the west section of the ravelin, and 
Test Pit 2 was placed between the test squares, in the 
vicinity of the earlier powder magazine's south wall loca- 
tion. 



00 




PKEM762 RAVELIN 



> 



CASA COMPOSITE 

RAVELIN 

5-2-79 

DEAGAN 

SCALE MOO 



c a.0 ions c 



. - - c 



.avelir. 



m xne 



The ravelin is a high, rectangular structure located 
across the moat and directly in front of the drawbridge and 
sally port (Figure 1). It functioned to protect the sally 
port during attack, and as a second and final line of defense 
for the fort itself (the south covered way being the front 
line). Construction of the ravelin was first completed in 
1682 (Arana and Manucy 1977:30), and at that time had a dif- 
ferent configuration than that of today; with a rounded rather 
than pointed south wall. This is shown in Figure 9, located 
some 6.5 meters south from the present entrance; and 7.75 
meters north from the present point of the ravelin south 
wall. Unfortunately project timetable and contract restric- 
tions precluded location and excavation of that wall. 

In 1762, construction was begun to expand the ravelin, 
to add a powder magazine and to raise the parapet walls by six 
more feet (Arana and Manucy 1977:53). The first two objectives 
were accomplished, giving the ravelin its present configuration, 
but the walls were never raised to the desired height. This 
was because the fort was ceded to the British in 1763, before 
the work was completed. 

The powder magazine was located in the vicinity of the 
excavations. This small room used the northwest and east walls 
of the ravelin's northwest section as its walls, with a wall 
to the south dividing it from the rest of the ravelin, and a 
doorway leading to the drawbridge area through the room's east 
wall. The exterior and interior sections of these rooms in 
1763 are reproduced in Figure 10, taken from the map of D. Pablo 



60 



UJ 

N 

< « 

< t 

"5 o. 




m 



v 
c 



c 



CVJ J" 

h- < 

— o 

3 t 

> 

< 




'J3 

o 



.3 4-5 



P- 



Castello y Don Pedro de Brozas y Garay (1763). These show 
the room with a. ; arched vaulted roof. 

The same cartographers show in 1763 the previous ravelin 
south wall, and the 1763 configuration of the entry stairs, 
which were double (Appendix 1, Map H). 

Table 8 shows the proveniences which were excavated in the 
ravelin, by unit. 

Test Square 1 was the shallowest excavation, due to the 
fact that Feature 5, the base of the original ravelin wall con- 
figuration, was encountered at 3.97 MMSL., or about 6 cm. below 
ground surface. This is shown in Figures 9 and n , and contains 
a depression at its east end, which bottoms into a stone step 
with a concave worn surface. This undoubtedly is the top step 
of the earlier stairway. Feature 5 indicates that the original 
ravelin wall closest to the fort was in a mirror-image confi- 
guration on either side of the then double stairway (this can 
also be seen in Map ^ , Appendix 1). Above the old wall base, 
the deposit's latest dating item was an American gold dollar 
dated 1834. 

The small portion of TS 1 not encompassed by Feature 5 
was excavated in 5 levels to a depth of 3. 38 MMSL (65 cm. below 
surface), where sterile white beach sand fill was encountered. 
That fill seems most likely to be the original ravelin fill 
material placed in 1682. The 5 levels above the sterile white 
fill (Tables 9 and 10) appear to constitute a deposit begun 
in the first Spanish period and continuing into the British 
period. Levels 3 to 5 contain 1750 or earlier material, and 



FS# 



Table 8. Ravelin Provenience Guide 

Datum: 5.55 MMSL (All elevations given in meters above 
sea level) 

Cultural 
Provenience Too Base TPQ Association 



73 




Level 


1 






4.03 


3.88 


Coin-1834 doll 


ar 


Spanish II-moder 


78 




Level 


2 






3.88 


3.73 


60' of foot butto: 


i British period 


82 




Level 


3 






3.73 


3.60 


Creamware 




ii 


86 




Level 


4 






3.60 


3-53 


Delf tware 




ii 


90 




Level 


5 






3.53 


3.38 


Puebla B/W 




British/Spanish 


79 




Area ' 


I, 


Li 


=vel 1 


3.74 


3.59 


Olive jar 




ii 


80 




Area ' 


I, 


Li 


svel 2 


3.59 


3.44 


Olive Jar 




n 


83 




Area c 


) 






3.62 


3.60 


no artifacts 




- 






Test Sauare 


2 












74 




Level 


1 






3-92 


3.32 








84-' 


35 


Level 


2 






3.80 


3.65 


Annular ware/ 
Pop top tab 




disturbed Soanis 
II fill 


89 




Level 


3 






3.65 


3.50 


Late shell edg 
pearlware 


;ed 


ii 


94 




Level 


4 






3.50 


3.34 


Pearlware 




ii 


98- 


100 


Level 


5 






3.35 


3.20 


Pearlware/tin 


foil 


ii 


105 




Level 


6 






3.20 


3.05 


Pearlware/cut 


nail 


Spanish II Fill 


108 




Level 


7 






3.05 


2.90 


Transfer print 
pearlware 




M 


81 




Area ' 


I 






3.70 


3.3. 


iiarly painted 







Area 2 



3.65 



88 


Area 3 


3.64 


3.57 


none 


Area 4 


3.43 




none 


Area 5 


3.40 




91 


Area 6 


3.40 


3.23 


none 


Pit 4 
Test Scuare 3 


3.65 




104 


Zone 3 


3.59 


3.43 


106 


Zone 4 


3.43 


3.25 


129 


Zone 5 


3.25 


3.13 



pearlware 

Electrical wire/ 
plain pearlware 

Annular ware 

no artifacts 

no artifacts 

Pearlware 

no artifacts 



Olive Jar 

Kaolin fragment 

Transfer printed 
pearlware 



Spanish II 

ii 



Table 8, cont'd. Ravelin Provenience Guide 



FS# 



Provenience 



Ton Base 



TPO 



Cultural 
Association 



128 



Zone 6, Level 1 



3.13 2.95 



Transfer printed 
pearlware 



Spanish II 



131 


Zone 6, 


Level 


2 


2.95 


2.79 


Annular ware 


ii 


T43 


Zone 6, 


Level 


3 


2.79 


2.73 


Ironstone 


ii 


144 


Zone 7, 


Level 


1 


2.73 


2.58 


Creamware 


British period 


145 


Zone 7, 


Level 


2 


2.58 


2.43 


San Agustin B/W 


ii 


146 


Zone 7, 


Level 


3 


2.43 


2.22 


B/W Delft 


ii 


N/A 


Feature 


1 1 




2.14 


2.24 


Powder Magazine fl 


oor 1762 


92 


Area 2 






3.75 




B/W Faience 


British Period 


93 


Area 3 






3.72 




60 afoot button 


ii 


97 


Area 4 






3.62 




Plain Majolica 


H 


101 


Area 5 






3.57 




Puebla B/W 


M 


96 


Area 6 






3.59 




UID Majolica 


ii 


N/A 


Feature 


D 




3.44 


3.65 


Powder Magazine 
Wall 


1762 


130 


Area 7 






2.95 




Annular ware 


Spanish II 


147 


Area 8 
floor m 


(Burned 
aterial) 


2.30 


2.20 


Debased Scratch 
Blue Stoneware 


British 



a pit (Area 1) underlying level 3 contains only hispanic 
material. Levels 1 and 2 contain British through second 
Spanish period material, which is remarkably undisturbed 
considering the intensity of modern usage of the area. 

Test Squares 2 and 3 provided evidence for the Spanish 
powder magazine. Tables 11-14 show the distribution of 
proveniences and cultural materials in these units. 

Feature 6 was located in TS 3» and is shown in Figures 
8 and 11. This was a coquina block wall, undoubtedly the 
south wall of the powder magazine. The top was at an elevation 
3.44 MMSL, some 46 cm. below surface. The feature is 1 meter 
wide, and extends to a depth of 2.14 MMSL (1.30 meters high). 
In the top of Feature 6, a rectangular postmold was cut into 
the stone. This measures 6 cm. by 12 cm., and was probably 
cut for the vaulted roof's wood support substructure. Thus 
it is implied that the arch for the powder magazine roof began 
at this point. It can be seen in Figure 1i that the top of 
the feature wall is approximately at the level of the top of 
the stone cordon on the ravelin's interior north wall. This 
cordon quite likely marks the level of the vaulted roof edge 
at the opposite end of the magazine from Feature 6. 

At 1.30 meters (4.24 feet) below this juncture of the 
roof vault and the magazine walls, a tabby floor was encoun- 
tered in Test Pit 3 (2.14 MMSL). This was designated Feature 
11, and was 10 to 11 cm. thick. Below the floor was sterile 
white beach sand fill, extending at least 18 inches (core 
samoled). The floor was most likely built at the end of the 









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first Spanish period. The floor extended up to Feature 6, 
and covered a toe projection of coquina extending out 35 cm. 
to the north of the wall, into the powder magazine area. The 
base of this toe was not excavated, hut the 1763 map referred 
to above shows it in section as being exactly one-third the 
height of the total wall (thus it would have been approximately 
43 cm. in depth, extending to an approximate elevation of .87 

MMSL) . 

The fill of the two test units indicates that the powder 
magazine was probably used for some time by the British soldiers, 
and partially filled during the British period. Test Square 2 
was excavated only to a depth of 2.90 MMSL (1.02 meters below 
surface) due to time and contract restrictions; while Test 
Square 3 was excavated to below the Feature 11 floor to a 
depth of 1.44 MMSL (2.46 meters below surface). 

Directly above the tabby floor was a layer of burnt earth, 
wood and rubble, 15 cm. in depth and designated Area 3. This 
material was deposited after 1765, based on a T?Q provided by 
Debased Scratch Blue Stoneware, and placing it firmly in 
the British period (1763-1781). The layer itself probably 
represents a burning of the powder magazine vault, which 
then fell onto the floor; or simply a deposit of burned secon- 
dary fill in the disused powder magazine. 

Above the burned layer was Zone 7, a grey-brown soil 
fill with very concentrated garbage debris in it. This exten- 
ded from 2.73 MMSL to 2.22 MMSL, over the burnt layer. This 
zone was also clearly of British period deposit (Table 13, 



67 



-TEST PIT 3 

NORTH PROFILE 



.5M.ao. 




.-IE: TO 3011 ??.Q? 



A- 



D- 



nodern duff i hur.us 
■rrey-brown sand wi shell 
ned . Drown sand wi sr.ell 
dark brown sand wi snell 
ll.-ht brown sand wi shelJ 


rieckir.T 
riscicine 
fleclcir.s 
. flecking 


med. brown sand wi whole 
med. crown sand 


3 r. e 1 1 


1 ! rht arcwn sand 





sand 



tan sand 

dark rrey-crown 
• -old sterile sand 
■ mottled yellow, -old, brown, tan sane 

-mottled yellow jtsrown sand 

wi shell flecking 
-tan sand with crushed sr.ei- 
»- =hell footing 



C- oyster 
?- tacoy 



;or 



a- 



loose concentrated socuina 
burnt soil, sr.ell cr.arcoa- 
concrete floor 
olacx bidden soil wi whole 
dark brown sell wi rai.e si 
dark crown, roid sell wi shi 



CASA RAVELIN 
STRAT RECORD 6 
6-22-79 
DEAGAN 
SCALE 1=10 

"loCM 



r 1Z-'Jl\2 - " 



'SiiI M . 
,-l v "" 'ft 



O v _ — ^ 

v -, - -• -> a 



68 










FIGURE 1 a 
Feature 6 and 11: Ravelin Powder Marazine 



Zone 7, Levels 1-3) , 

The zones above this level in both TP 3 and TS 2 are 
clearly of second Spanish period affiliation (TS 2 was exca- 
vated, as noted above, to a depth of only 2.90 MMSL; which is 
equivalent in TP 3 to Zone 6, Level 2.). All Zone 2 through 6 
deposits contained pearlware and annular wares, which date 
solidly within the second Spanish period. 

The north wall of TS 2 (in the northeast corner of the 
ravelin's west section) revealed an inside coquina ledge at 
3.70 MMSL (20 cm. below ground surface). This is the ledge 
noted above as the probable point of the powder room vault 
and north wall juncture. Below this ledge, the east wall of 
the ravelin itself was extremely unstable in appearance, with 
irregular coquina blocks and numerous dirt-filled voids (figure 
12). TS 3 excavation revealed that this void extended for 1.10 
meters downward (1.4 meters below ground surface; and 45 cm. 
above the tabby floor). This rubble void was apparently the 
result of the powder room's east wall partially collapsing, 
toward the end of the Eritish period. The powder room was 
then filled in with half a meter ofs'oiduring the British 
period. The remaining, fillwasadded and the wall repaired 
during the second Spanish period. The top of the British 
fill corresponds to the base of the void; so it is also 
possible that the powder room was partially filled in 
during the British period; and then the east wall caved in 
and was repaired and filled during the second Spanish period. 

In any case, the rubble portion of the wall was constructed 



70 



during the second Spanish period, when the west stairway was 
filled in; and the ravelin wall closest to the fort assumed 
its present configuration. At that time, the grade surface 
was probably at the top of the coquina rubble-dirt void wall 
section, at 4.05 MMSL (30 cm. below present surface). Figure 
11 shows that it is above this elevation that the wall assumes 
a cut and mortared, rough course masonry construction, which 
is plastered down to the 4.05 MMSL. All soil deposits asso- 
ciated with the powder magazine fill down to the top of Zone 7 
(British deposit) contain artifacts of the second Spanish 
period and no later; firmly dating the rubble void and its 
fill to that period. 

In summary, excavations revealed the locations and original 
configurations of the original ravelin stairway; which was in 
a mirror image to that present today. Apparently the filling 
in of the stairs was done during the second Spanish period. 

The powder magazine of the first Spanish period was 
located, with the south wall of that room (Feature 6) 3-5 meters 
south of the ravelin north wall. The wall was 1 meter thick 
with a rectangular post mold cut into the top. The powder 
magazine was floored in tabby 15 cm. thick (Feature 11), 
1.30 meters below the juncture of the powder magazine support 
walls and roof vault. 

It was partially filled in during the British period, and 
the remainder was filled during the second Spanish period. 
The east wall of the powder magazine also collapsed at some 
point, most probably during the second Spanish period. This 



71 
Table 9. Ravelin, Test Square 1: Ceramics 



Artifact Description 


Leve 


si 2 


Area 
Leve 


1 
1 1 


Area 1 
Level 2 


Level 3 


Area 2 


Level 


Hispanic 




















Puebla Blue on Whi 


te 1 


.03' 
















Aranama Polychrome 












1 


.053 






Castillo Polychrom 


a 


















Olive Jar ,unglazed 












1 


.053 






Olive Jar, glazed 


2, 


.069 






1 1.000 










El Morro 




















TCTAL 


3 


.103 


- 




1 1.000 


2 


.105 


- 


- 


Other European 




















Plain delft 


1 


.034 












.- 


1 


Blue on White delf 


t 2 


.069 














2 


Slipware 


2 


.069 








1 


.053 






Bisque 


1 


.034 














> 


Creamware 


4 


.138 








1 


.053 






Jackfield ware 












2 


. 105 






Grey salt-glazed 
stoneware 












1 


.053 






White salt-glazed 
stoneware 


5 


.172 
















Nottingham stone- 
ware 


1 


.034 
















Rhenish stoneware 




















TOTAL 


14 


.483 


- 




- 


5 


.263 


- 


4 


Aboriginal 




















Sx. Johns Plain 


2 


.069 








2 


.105 




1 .C 


St. Johns Stamped 


















1 .C 


San Marcos Plain 


4 


.138 


3 


.750 




1 


.053 




6 .2 


San Marcos Stamped 


2 


.069 








1 


.053 




3 .1 


UID shell-tempered 




















discards 


1 


.034 


1 


.250 




8 


.421 


1 1.000 


9 .3 


UID Aboriginal 


1 


.034 
















TOTAL 


10 


.345 


4 1 


.000 


- 


12 


.632 


1 1.000 


20 .8 


TOTAL CERAMICS 


29 


.998 


4 1 


.000 


1 1.000 


19 


1 .002 


1 1.000 


24 1 .0 



72 



Table 9, cont'd. Ravelin^ Te£t Square 1: Ceramics 



Artifact Description 



Level 5 



Hispanic 

Puebla Blue on White 3 
Aranama Polychrome 
Castillo Polychrome 1 
Clive Jar, unglazejl 1 
Olive Jar, glazed 
El Morro 1 

TOTAL 6 

Other European 

Plain delft 

Blue on White Deli 

Slipware 

Bisque 

Creamware 

Jackfield ware 

Grey salt-glazed 
stoneware 

White salt-glazed 
stoneware 

Nottingham 
stoneware 

Rhenish stoneware 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 
Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stamped 
San Marcos Plain 
oan Marcos Stamped 
UIL shell-tempered 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



.08$ 

.028 
.028 

.028 
.167 



.028 
.028 



2 


.056 


2 


.056 


1 


.028 


10 


.278 


1 


.023 


14 


.390 


28 


.778 


36 


1 .002 



73 



Table 10. Ravelin, Test Square 1: Non-ceramic material 
culture . 



Arti fact Descri pti o ji 

Glass 



green 






clear 






"brown 






aqua 






Iron 






whole 


nail 




nail 


fragment 


tack 






wire 


nail 




strap 


frag 


ment 


spike 


frag 


ment 


flat 


iron 


fragmen 


gun b 


arrel 


fragme 


Brass 






nail 






oin 







lacing tip 

furniture hinge 
lead 

musket ball 
Buttons 

military brass 

bone 
Pipes 
Flint 
Chert 
Wirewound bead 



Level 2 



65 
29 



4 

17 

1 

1 

it 1 

1 
1 
1 



Area 1 
Level 1 



Area 1 
Level 2 



Level 3 



Area 2 



15 
7 



11 
26 



Level 



: 
4 



Table 10, cont'd 



74 

Ravelin, Test Square 1: Non-ceramic 
material culture. 



Level 5 
Art.-ifart. Depcripfcion 



^LASS 

green 

clear 

brown 

aqua 
Iron 

whole nail 

nail fragments 

tack 

wire nail 

strap fragment 

spike fragment 

flat iron frag- 
ment 

gun barrel ' 
fragment 

Erass 



nail 




pin 




lacing 


tip 


furnixure hinge 


Lead 




musket 


ball 


Buttons 




military brass 


bone 




Pines 





Flint 
Chert 
Wirewound Bead 



75 
Table 11. Ravelin, Test Square 2: Ceramics 



Level 2 



rtifact Descripti 



on 



Hispanic 

Columbia Plain 

Ichtucknee Elu 
on Blue 

Abo Polychrome 

UID Plain 
majolica 

UID Blue on 
white majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Olive Jar, 
glazed 

Marine Ware 

Mexican Red Fijlm 

El Morro ■ 

Rey ware 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Plain delft 

Black lead-gls.zed 
coarse earthenware 

G-reer. lead-glazed 
coarse earther.ware 

unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

UID xin enamelled 
coarse earxheiware 

Buckley 

Slipware 

Creamware 

Plain pearlware 

Early painted 
pearlware 

Late painted 
pearlware 

Transfer- printed 
pearlware 



Area 2 



Area 3 



400 



400 



500 



200 



125 



Level 3 



Area 6 



Level 4 

SW 4 



3 

11 



500 



022 



067 

044 



,044 

,067 

244 



.022 



022 

156 
067 

067 

022 



1 .04 



04 



04 



20C 



400 
200 

200 



04 



76 
Table 11, cont'd. Ravelin, Test Square 2: Ceramics 





Leve 

SE t 


1 5 


Level 5 
NE % 


Leve 
SE % 


1 6 


Level 7 
SE '% 


Level 8 
SE % 


Area 1 


Urtifaot Depcript 


Ion 




















Hispanic 






















Columbia Plain 












1 


.019 








Ichtucknee Blu 
on Blue 


e 




















Abo Polychrome 










, 










1 .33 


UID Plain 
majolica 








1 


.031 






1 


.029 




UID Blue on 
white majolica 








1 


.031 












Olive Jar, 
unglazed 


1 


.042 


1 1.000 






1 


.015 


.4 


.114 




Olive Jar, 
glazed 
















2 


.057 




Marine Ware 












3 


.057 






* 


Mexican Red Pi 


lm 














1 


.029 




El Morro • 








2 


.063 


1 


.01S 








Rey ware 


1 


.042 




1 


.031 


3 


.057 


1 


.029 




TOTAL 


2 


.083 


1 1.000 


5 


.156 


9 


.17C 


9 


.257 


1 .3: 


Other European 






















Plain delft 






















Black lead-gls 
coarse earther 


.zed 
ware 






2 


.063 


• 




1 


■ .029 




Green lead-glc 
coarse earther 


.zed 
iware 




















Unglazed coan 
earthenware 


e 










5 


.09- 


I- 1 


.02S 




UID tin enamel 


.led 




















coarse eartnei 


iware 




















Buckley 


2 


.083 


















Siipware 


1 


.042 




1 


.031 


2 


.03' 


3 4 


. 1 1/ 




Creamware 


2 


.083 




7 


.219 


11 


.20. 


I 1 


.20C 




Plain peariwa: 


:e 






2 


.063 












Early painted 
oeariware 


2 


.08; 








1 


.01 


3 2 


.05^ 


1 .3 


Late painted 






















pearlware 






V 
















Transfer-prin 
pearlware 


ted 










; 


.05 


7 







77 
Table 11, cont'd. 



\ T ±i fart, Dpscript:.on 



Level 2 



Area 2 



Area 3 



Level 3 



Area 6 



Level 4 
SW i 



Polychrome painted 
pearlware 

Annular ware .500 

UID Burned Refined 
Earthenware 

TOTAL 2 

boriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

S t . Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

San Marcos handlje 

UID Aboriginal 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 2 1.000 



600 



200 



200 



, 125 
750 

125 



.400 
1 .000 



27 

4 
1 
3 
1 



1 .125 

2 .250 

3 1.000 



600 

,089 
.022 
,067 
.022 



5 1.000 



9 .200 

18 .400 
45 1.000 



1 .000 



5 
1 
2 
5 

2 

5 

20 

23 



78 
Table 11, cont'd. 



Artifact Description 



Level 5 
SE i 



Level 5 
NE-i 



Level 6 

SE t 



Level 7 
SE 4 



Level 
SE % 



Area 1 



Polychrome painted 
pearlware 

Annular ware 

UID Burned Refin^ 
Earthenware 

TOTAL 

.boriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos St am pie 

San Marcos Hnadl 

UID Aboriginal 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 



.375 

.167 
.042 



;d10 .417 



1 1.000 



15 .625 
24 1.001 



1 1.000 



19 

4 
4 
2 
2 
1 



13 
32 



031 

031 



.594 

.125 
.125 
.063 
.063 
.031 



.406 
1 .001 



21 .396 



.029 



25 .1U 



.66 



4 
2 

11 



.075 
.038 

.208 



5 .094 
22 .415 
53 1.002 



10 

35 



.029 

.029 
. 11'- 
.086 

.029 

.280 
1.003 



.3; 



1 .3: 
3 1.0C 



79 
Table 12. Ravelin, Test Square 2: Non-ceramic material 
culture (+-indicates presence) 









Level 2 


Area 


2 


tifa^ + Tl^c^Ti'-nti n 


n 








Glass 












green 












light 


green 










clear 








3 




clear 


flat 










brown 






2 


7 




aqua 












Iron 












whole 


nail 






12 





Area 3 



nail fragment 

cut nail 

cut nail fragment 

tack 

spike fragment 

eye fastener 

buckle frame 



scissors 
strap fragment 
hook 
slag 
flakes 
lumps 
fragments 
3rass 



eye 






pin 






loop 






spring 






copper 


chai 


n 


copper 


shee 


t 


fragmer 


it 




lead 







musket ball 



jevel 3 



14 



2 

24 



Area 6 



Level 4 
sw ± 



+ 
+ 
+ 



81 

Table 12, cont'd. Ravelin, Test Square 2: Non-ceramic material 

culture. (+-indicates presence) 



rtifact Description 



Level 5 
se i 



Level 5 
SE f 



Level 6 
SE t 



Level 7 
SE % 



Level 8 

i 

4 



SE - 



Area 1 



Glass 

green 

light green 

clear 

clear flat 

brown 

aqua 
Iron 

whole nail 

nail fragment 

cut nail 

cut nail fragment 

tack 

spike fragment 

eye fastener 

buckle frame 

ring 

scissors 

strap fragment 

hook 

slag 

flakes 

lumps 

fragments 
Brass 




16 



11 



15 
2 



29 

1 

10 



S 
22 



+ 
+ 



19 



16 
21 



82 
Table 12, cont'd. 



















Level 2 


Area 2 


Area 3 


Level 3 


Area 6 


Leve 

SW 4 


rtifact Descriptit 


on 












lead 














Pines 














Kaolin clay bow; 


1 






2 


2 




Kaolin stem 4/6- 


r 






3 






Kaolin stem 5/6 


r 




' 




2 




Aboriginal bowl 














Bone 














comb fragment 








1 






button blank 














Buttons 














bone 




1 










brass 












» 


Rock 














flint flakes 








2 






chert 












1 


flint 














basalt 














quartz 














coal 




+ 










UID rock 














clay 






+ 


+ 




+ 


Construction mate 


rial 


+ 


+ 








coquina 




+ 


tabby 








+ 






mortar 






+ 


+ 






plaster 














1 daub 




+ 










i flat tile 












+ 


brick 




+ 


+ 


+ 




* 


Possible trigger 














[Raspberry bead 














Pop top rings 


2 


v 










|Tin foil 














1 , 

electrical wire 

1 




1 











83 
Table 12, cont'd. 





Level 5 


Level 5 


Level 6 


Level 7 


Level 8 






SE t 


SE- 4 


SE i 


SE i 


SE i 


Area 1 


hi fact Lescriptio 


n 












lead 








+ 


■■ , 




Pipes 














Kaolin clay bow 


L 












Kaolin stem 4/6 


V 1 1 












Kaolin stem 5/6 


r 












Aboriginal bowl 








1 






Bone 














comb fragment 














button blank 


1 








1 




Buttons 










- 




bone 








4 


1 




brass 


1 






1 






Rock 












» 


flint flakes 














chert 






1 








flint 


1 




1 


1 


1 




basalt 






+ 








quartz 






+ 








coal 








+ 






UIL rock 






+ 


+ 


_ 




clay 










+ 




Construction mat€ 


rial 






+ 






coquina 


+ 


+ 


tabby 










+ 


+ 


mortar 






+ 


+ 


-L 


+ 


plaster 


+ 






+ 






daub 








+ 






flat tile 














brick 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Possible trigger 








1 






Raspberry bead 






1 








Pop top rings 














Tin foil 




1 










electrical wire 















84 
Table 13. Ravelin, Test Pit 3: Ceramics 



tifact Description 



Hispanic 

Ichtucknee Blup 
on blue 



B/W 



Area 2 



San Luis 

Fuebla B/W 

San Augustin 
Blue on white 

UID Plain 
majolica 

UID Blue on 
white majolica 

UID Polychrome 
majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Olive Jar, 
glazed 

El Morro 

Key ware 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Plain delft 

Blue on white 
delft 

Polychrome 
delft 

Blue on white 
faience 

Plain faience 

N. Devon gravel- 
tempered ware 

Slipware 

clear lead-glaz'ed 
coarse earthenware 

unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

Black lead-glazed 
coarse earthenware 

UID polychrome lead- 



1 



glazed coarse 



167 



167 



.333 



167 



earthenwa: 



Area 3 
Level 1 



.040 



1 .040 



Area 4 



.500 



1 .500 



1 .040 



1 .040 



Area 5 



1 . 100 



100 



Area 6 
Level 1 



.200 



Area 7 



.200 
.200 

.600 



00 



14 



1 .02 



2 .04 

1 .02 



85 
Table 13, cont'd. Ravelin, Test Pit 3, Ceramics 



.rtifact Distribution 



Area 8 



Level 2 



Level 3 



Level 4 



Zone 6 

Level 1 



Zone 6 
Level 2 



Hispanic 

Ichtucknee Bluje 
on Blue 

San Luis B/W 

Puebla B/W 

San Augustin 
Blue on White 

UID Plain 
Majolica 

UID Blue on 
white majolica 

UID Polychrome 
Majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

Olive Jar, 
glazed 

El Morro 

Rey ware 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Plain delft 

Blue on white 
delft 

Polychrome 
delft 

Blue on white 
faience 

Plain faience 

N. Devon grave 1 ] 
tempered ware 

Slipware 

clear lead-glazed 
coarse earthenware 

unglazed coar= e 
earthenware 

Black lead-glazed 
coarse earther.ware 

UID polychrome lead- 
glazed coarse eartnenwar 



111 



111 



1 1 1 
533 



3 .036 



024 



9 


.108 


4 


.048 


1 


.012 


19 


.229 



8 .348 



18 .29 



348 



5 
23 



.024 
.012 



.024 



.OS 

.03 

.01 



.06 



.01 
.06 



86 
Table 13, cont'd. Ravelin, Test Pit J>: Ceramics 



irtifact Descripti Dn 



Zone 6 
Level 3 



unglazed coarse 
earthenware 



Black lead-glazed 
coarse earthenware 

UID ■DolychromB iead- 
gj-azcd c arse earthenware 



Zone 7 
Level 1 



Hispanic 

Ichtucknee Blu 
on Elue 

San Luis B/W 

Puebla B/W 

San Augustin 
Blue on white 

UID Plain 
Majolica 

UID Blue on 

White Majolica] 1 .016 

UID Polychrome 

Majolica 1 .016 

Olive Jar, 

unglazed S .145 

Olive Jar, 

glazed 10 .161 

El Morro 

Key ware 

TOTAL 21 .339 

Other European 

Plain delft 

Elue on White 
Delft 

Polychrome 

Delft 

Blue on white 
Eaience 

Plain Faience 

N. Levon gravel- 
tempered ware .046 

Slipware .0 

clear lead-glazed 
coarse earthenware 



1 .016 



67 



Zone 7 
Level 2 



050 



050 



Zone 7 
Level 3 



027 



050 



150 



027 



054 



.027 



87 
Table 13, con t »^. 



rtifact Description 



Area 2 



Area 3 
Level 1 



Area 4 



Area 5 



Area 6 
Level 1 



Area 7 



Bisque 

UIL tin-enamellejl 
coarse earthenware 

Jackfield 

Creamware 

Plain pearlware 

Early painted 
pearlware 

Late painted 
pearlware 

Transfer- printed 
pearlware 

Annular ware 

Ironstone 

White salt glazejd 
stoneware 

grey salt-glazed 
stoneware 

Debased scratch 
blue stoneware 



English Porcelai 
TOTAL 
borisinal 



St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

UIL sand-tempered 

Lamar-like Bold 
Incised 

Jefferson Stamped 

San Marcos pipe 
bowl fragment 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CZ2AMICS 



n 



167 



333 



67 



167 



33 



999 



2 
3 



\2 
18 
25 



.080 



04C 



04C 
24C 



040 
030 
, 1 20 



.430 
> .72 
1 .00 



D 1 
2 



500 



.50C 
1 .00C 



100 

200 
100 
300 



1 . 100 

7 .702 

10 1.000 



200 

200 



2 .400 
5 1 . 000 



4 
6 



1 .02 



1 .o; 



18 



7 

17 
41 



Table 13, 8 %ont'd. 



rtifact Lescripti 



Area 
pn 



Level 2 



Level 3 



Level 4 



Zone 6 
Level 1 



Zone 6 
Level 2 



- Bi-eque 

UID tin-enamelletL 
coarse earthenv/alre 

Jackf ield 

Creamware 

Plain Pearlware 

Early painted 
pearlware 

Late painxed 
pearlware 

Transfer-printed 
pearlware 

Annular ware 

Ironstone 

White salt-glazejd 
stoneware 

Grey salt-glazed 
stoneware 

Debased scratch 
blue stoneware 

English porcelai 

TOTAL 

Lborisinal 
St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stamped 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 

I UID sand-xemper^d 

' Lamar-Iike Bold 
Incised 

Jeiferson Stamped 

San Marcos pipe 

I bowl fragment 
discards 
TOTAL 



TOTAL CERAMICS 



1 



1 .000 
1 .000 



000 



.444 
.222 



.111 
.111 



.444 
.999 



2 50 



250 



.50C 
1.00C 



3 .036 
1 .012 

4 .048 
4 .048 
1 .012 



18 

3 
4 

9 

4 



17 

46 
83 



.211 

036 
,048 
,108 
,048 

,036 



20 j 

55* 12 
993 23 



043 
043 



1 .043 



130 



130 



522 - 

998 61 1 .00( 



1 

4 

16 



5 .0£ 



33 



89 
— Tafcre~T3 , " cont" r d ." 



rtifact escription 



Zone 6 

Level 3 



Zone 7 
Level 1 



Zone 7 
Level 2 



Zone 7 

Level 3 



1 



Bisque 

UIL tin-enamelled 
coarse earthenware 

Jackfield 

Creamware 

Plain Pearlware 

Early painted 
pearlware 

Late painted 
pearlware 

Transfer-printed 
pearlware 

Annular ware 

Ironstone 

White salt-glazed 
stoneware 

Grey salt-glazed 
stoneware 

Debased scratch 
blue stoneware 

English Porcelain 



TOTAL 



Aborigina 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

UID sand-tempered 

Lmar-like Bold 
Incised 

Jefferson Stamped 

San Marcos pipe 
bowl fragmenx 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 



2 
^5 



12 



4 

16 
62 



.032 

,016 

,113 

,048 

016 



048 



.032 
.403 



.194 



.065 

.258 
.998 



.333 



3 .500 

1 . 167 

2 .333 



5 
7 



3 ..500 
6 1.000 



4 

17 
20 



:50 



350 



.027 



.200 

.850 

1 .000 



.027 



.027 



. 108 



5 


.135 


2 


.054 


23 


. 622 


1 


.027 



1 .027 

32 .865 
37 1.000 



Table 14. 



9^ - 

Ravelin, Test Pit 3: Non-Ceramic Material Culture 
(+-indicates presence) 



Art ifact Description 



Area 2 



Area 3 
Level 1 



Area 4 



Area 5 



Area 6 
Level 1 



Area 



Glass 

green 

light green 

clear 

clear flat 

aqua 

amber 
Iron 

whole nails 

nail fragments 

cut nails 

tack 

spike fragment 

Jaw harp 

strap fragment 

bands 

pintel hinge 

scabbard tip 

needle 



slag 






flakes 


/lumps 




Lead 






Bullet 






shot 






musket 


ball 




Brassstr 


aight 


pin 



cuff-link 

buckle 

eye fastener 

key hole cover 

V/ires 

Scrap 

Copper eye fastener 

copper fragments 



2 
3 



14 
4 



23 

H 

2 



1 
8 



11 



10 
42 



Table 14, cont'd 



--91 

Ravelin, Test Pit 3: ^on-Ceramic Material Cultu 
(♦-indicates presence. 



Artifact Descriptio 



h 



Glass 

green 

light green 

clear 

clear ilat 

aqua 

amber 
Iron 

whole nails 11 

nail fragments 64 

cut nails 

tack 

spike fragment 

Jaw harp 

strap fragment 

bands 

pintel hinge 

scabbard tip 

needle 

slag 

flakes/lumps 
Lead 

bullet 

shot 

musket ball 
Brass 

straight pin 

cuff-link 

buckle 

eye fastener 

key hole cover 

wires 

scrap 

copper eye fasteher 

copper fragments 



Area 8 



Level 2 



Level 3 



Level 4 



27 
7 
7 



26 



Zone 6 
Level 1 



23 



16 

15 



Table 14, cont'd 



92 - 

Ravelin, Test Pit 3: Non-Ceramic Material 
Culture (+-indicates presence) 



rtifacx LescriDtion 


Zone 6 
Level 3 


Zone 7 
Level 1 


Zone 7 
Level 2 


Zone 7 
Level 3 




Glass 












green 


20 


3 








light green 


5 




3 






clear 


15 




1 


7 




clear flat 


15 




12 






aqua 








1 




amber 








1 




Iron 












whole nails 


27 


1 


1 


30 




nail fragment 


57 






140 




cut nails 












tack 








1 




spike fragment 








2 




Jaw harp 












strap fragment 


2 










bands 






3 






pintel hinge 












scabbard tip 












needle 












slag 












flakes/lumps 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




Lead 












Bullet 












shot 












musket ball 












Brass 












straight pin 


1 










cuff-link 


2 










buckle 


. 1 










eye fastener 


1 










key-hole cover 








1 




wires 


2 










scrap 




b 








copper eye fasten 


er 










r copper fragments 


+ 











93 

Table 14, cont'd. 



Ar tifact Descriptio 



Area 2 



Area 3 
Level 1 



Area 4 



Area 5 



Area 6 
Level 1 



Area 



Pipes 

Kaolin clay stem 
Kaolin clay bowl 
Moravian bowl 
Aboriginal Pipe 

Worked Bone 
bone comb 
button blank 
worked bone 

Buttons 



Bone 

Bone and copper 

copper 

brass 

military brass 
Rock 

flint 

worked flint 

chert 

worked chert 

slate 
Pewter handle 
Spall 
Construcxion Mater 



ial 



coquma 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

brick 

daub 

slate 
Clay 

Hone or whetstone 
charcoal 



2 



-9-4- 

Table 14, cont'd. 



















Area 8 


Level 2 


Level 3 


Level 4 


Zone 6 
Level 1 


Zone 
Leve 


Artifact Descriptio 


2 












Pices 














Kaolin clay stem 


1 






2 


3 


9 


Kaolin clay bowl 














Moravian bowl 










d 




Aboriginal Pipe 






• 








Worked Bone 














bone comb 














button blank 














worked bone 












1 


Buttons 










- 




Bone 










4 


A 


Bone and copper 














Copper 


2 








1 


• 


brass 








1 


2 




military brass 














Rock 














Flint 








7 


3 


1 


Worked flint 














Chert 














Worked chert 












< 


slate 














Pewter handle 








1 






Spall 












1 


Construction Mater 


ial 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




coquina 


+ 


+ 


tabby 






+ 






+ 


mortar 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




plaster 














brick 


. 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


daub 














\ slate 






+ 


+ 


+ 




Clay 














Hone or whetstone 




h 










' charcoal 

I 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 



. -95-- 

Table 14, cont'd. 



krxifact Description 



Zone 6 

Level 3 



Zone 7 
Level 1 



Zone 7 
Level 2 



Zone 7 
Level 3 



Pipes 

Kaolin clay stem 
Kaolin clay "bowl 
Moravian bowl 
Aboriginal bowl 

Worked bone 



Flint 

worked flint 

Chert 

Worked chert 
Pewter handle 
Spall 
Construction Materib.1 



coquma 




+ 


tabby 




+ 


mortar 






plasxer 






brick 




+ 


daub 






slate 






Clay 




+ 


Hone or whets 


tone 


1 


Charcoal 




+ 



bone comb 


1 


button blank 




worked bone 




Buttons 




Bone 


10 


Bone and copper 


2 


Copper 




Brass 




Military brass 




Rock 





96 



was repaired with a rubble and dirt packed construction up 
to a grade level 30 cm- below that of 1979. 

Sub-grade walls were observed on site by the project 
architect, and evaluated in his reports. 

Water Battery Excavations 

Excavations were carried out in the (east) water battery 
for the following purposes: 

1. To observe the nature of the fort's exterior foundation 
system, and to check the sub-grade condition of the scarp in 
the water battery. 

2. To look for evidence of structures in the area of the 
water battery between the fort wall and the shot furnace. 

3. To locate the previous moat surface and recover material 
discarded there. 

4. To observe the construction methods and sub-grade conditions 
of the shot furnace. 

In order to meet these objectives, two units were exca- 
vated in the water battery in the locations shown in Figure 15, 
one adjacent to the fort's eastern scarp; and one encompassing 
the southwest corner of the shot furnace. Figure 15 shows 
the locations of the units, while Figures 16 to 19 show oro- 
files of excavated areas. Table 15 lisxs the proveniences 
and affiliations excavated in the water battery, and Tables 
16 to 19 show the artifact distributions from these proveniences 

When the Castillo was originally constructed, the water 
battery was a moat. The moat was filled in to form the nresent 
battery during the American period, i n about 13*43. The shot 



97 



r 
z 

UJ 

X 



.J 




>• 
a: 

UJ 

I- 
< 
CD 



(/><\J 



(fl 

LU 



tr 

Ui 

< 




cu 
-p 
C 

•H 

CQ 
jj 

•H 

c 

ca 

Eh 

'-. 
O 

CO 

c 
■~ 
■H 

.-: 

C 



— 



3 



98 



furnace was constructed circa . Thus the sub-grade depo- 
sits in this area are primarily of interest during the American 
period. During that time, stables are believed to have been 
present in this area (Luis Arana, personal communication, CASA, 
1979). Several cut holes in the fabric of the east scarp of 
the fort, directly opposite the shot furnace and approximately 
two meters above present grade, may be related to such struc- 
tures, however archeological investigations yielded no evidence 
to support this supposition; or, indeed, to suggest that any 
activities other than those related strictly to defense, took 
place in the water battery. 

Test Trench 1 was established at a right angle to the 
fort scarp, extending to the shot furnace. Due to time and 
contract restraints, excavation was carried out only in those 
sections adjacent to adjacent to the scarp and the shot fur- 
nace. Conditions of the sub-surface walls for both structures 
were checked on site by the project architect, and are included 
in his reports. 

Trench 1, Section A (adjacent to the fort scarp) yielded 
some interesting data about the foundation construction and 
the level of the moat at the time of its filling during the 
American period. 

Previous investigations at the Castillo by Albert Manucy 
(1940) and Thor Borreson (1941) also addressed these ques- 
tions and the data from those investigations corresponds 
closely to that revealed in 1979, and will be considered in 
more detail below. 



99 



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UJ 
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rH 


ro -H 


« «l£ 












c to 


r-l L0 










T> 11 


-1 


O 01 










C £ 


3 O 


.C — t -H 










<fl (0 


cr t- 


3 O 3 










fO 


to 












■O t.T 


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c u c 





3 —4 










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t. to -1 — 1 







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led yel 
shell f 
sand wi 
ter she 
ov floo 


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C -1 

c 

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crete f 
ck midd 
k brown 
k brown 











j_) to .O 


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100 







FIGURE 17 
£ub-rrade foundation of scar: 



o in i'.'ater Batter'- 



101 



more detail below. 

Figures 16 and 17, and Tables 16 and 17 show 'he strati- 
graphic situation and artifact distributions adjacent to the 
fort's exterior east scarp face. Ground surface in this area 
is at 2.33 MMSL. The old moat surface (Zone 6) was encountered 
at i.4l MMSL, or 92 cm. below present ground surface. This was 
a layer of black muck and mud, 30 cm. thick, and resting on 
yellow-white sterile sand. This old moat base layer contained 
artifacts dating exclusively to the first Spanish period, suggesting 
that the moat was cleaned out shortly before the water battery 
was filled in. The base of the moat corresponds almost exactly 
to the 1940 moat base indicated by Manucy (1940). The 1940 
base was 4 inches below the top of the lower course (toe) of 
the fort foundation, and the water battery old moat base was 
4.5 inches below the top of the lower course (toe) of the fort 
foundation in the water battery (Manucy 1 s investigation was in 
the south moat) . 

The layers in Figure 16 designated C, J, and N are of 

dark grey-brown soil and probably represent an earlier (19th 

century) ground surface. Thus the filled grade for the water 

battery was about 2.02 MMSL, or 30 cm. below present surface. 

Eetween this surface and the black moat muck is tan beach sand 

filled with shells. All material from these J 

j 
post-1790, and all material above the suggp 



grade dates to modern (post-plastic) tim' 



1m 1 
The scar^ itself rests on two ste T 



coquina. The upper ledge is 25 cm 



• 




10 2 



ward from the scarp 30 cm. (Feature 9). This rests on a 
second ledge, 35 to 40 cm. thick; which extends eastward 
from the scarp for 45 cm. These foundation toes rest on 
yellow-tan sterile sand, and apparently function as an ab- 
sorbent cushion on which the fort rests in a "floating" 
fashion. This foundation information is completely con- 
sistent with that found by Manucy in 1940. 

Figures 18 and 19 show the "base of the shot furnace. 
At 2.09 MMSL (31 cm. "below present surface) a coquina toe 
was uncovered at the southwesx corner of the furnace. This 
was 20 cm. thick, and extended out from the furnace vertical 
wall for 10 cm. Adjacent to the solid toe was a deteriorated 
mass of coquina which was quite likely at one time a part 
of the toe. It was of the same thickness, and extended an 
additional 30 cm. out from the solid portion of the toe. 
Underlying "both the solid and deteriorated portions of the 
toe is a thin footing of packed oyster shells, 10 cm. thick. 
This rests on the tan fill zone also encountered in Trench 
1. The shot furnace was not excavated deeper than the 
shell footing. Directly above the coquina toe (Feature 13) 
in Zone 2, Level 2, a 1907 penny was found, indicating that 
the level was disturbed and filled subsequent to that date. 



103 



iNWCORNER 



NORTH PROFILE 




rf-l M.B.D. 



LlI 
O 
< 

-z. 
en 

u_ 

h- 

O 
X 
CO 



COQUINA TOE 
COQUINA RUBBLE 



PACKED OYSTER 
SHELL FOOTING 



CASA STRAI RECORD 9 

scale WATER BATTERY 

=== oCM TEST SQUARE 2 

6-25-79 
DEAGAN 



10 



FIGURE 13 



>/ater Battery, Test Square 2 
[\orth Profile (Shot Furnace Base) 



.\i.' 



•:le: 



-.oaerr. duff i hunus 

rrey-brown sand vi sr.eli flecxi-- 

-.eci . sro.vr. 3ind vi shell rieckins 

lark :rcwr. sand vi shell fleckinc 

li-r-.: ;rcwr. 3ar.-J .vi snell flecki.-.g 

~ed. crown sand -vi <r.oie 3.-.ell 

-ed . brown sa.-.d 

iirht srowr. sane 

oan sar.d 

-lar^ rrey-crown ssr.: 

-z'-z sterile sand 

Kotwled yellow ,, -told, crown, tan aar.; 



M-rccttled yellow ,'orown sa.-.d 
wi sr.eli flecjcir.c 

..'-"-a.-. 5i-.: v::.-. :ru:.-ec snell 

3- - "3ter sr.eli footing 

?- sascy floor 

5- l:cse i^r.rer.tra'ec :oqul"a 

R- uur-: soil, sr.eli ;.-.ar-oal 

Z- :zr.zr?ze fleer 

7- slack -.idcer. sell (i ^.-sle sr.e! 

'-'- iarv. crown sell wi -tr.z.s s.-.eii 

V- dark crowr.,roid soil «'i sr.elis 



10*4 




«35ua*.*J5£-J 



-■, 10/ u " ur nac6 Suc-~rade foundation 



105 



Table 15. Water Battery Provenience Guide 
(All elevations in meters above mean sea level) 

Trench 1, Section A (against scarp) 



FS# 



Provenience 



Top 



Base 



TPQ 



Cultural 
Association 



112 Zone 2 
114 Zone 3 
none Zone 4 

120 Zone 5, Level 1 
123 Zone 5, Level 2 

125 Zone 6, Level 1 

126 Zone 6, Level 2 
133 Zone 6, Level 3 

none Zone 7 

109 Area 1 

111 Pit 2 

113 Feature 7 
119 Area 3 

none Area 5 

127 Feature 8 
122 Feature 9 

121 Area 7 
N/A Area 8 
N/A Area 9 
N/A Feature 10 

Test Scuare 2 (shot furnace) 

none Zone 1 

155 Zone 2, Level 1 

156 Zone 2, I.evei 2 
162 Zone 3 

160 Zone A 



2.18 2.02 



1.59 1.41 



2.40 2.12 

2.10 2.02 

2.02 2.01 

2.01 1.97 

1.82 1.65 



Ginger beer 
bottle 



2.02 1 .99 minie ball 



1.99 1.90 



1 .90 1 .59 olive jar- 



trans fer- prin- 
ted pearlware 



modern humic 
accumulation 

moat fill- 19th 
century 

moat fill-19th 
century 

moat fill- 19th 
century 

moat fill- 19th 
century 



1 .41 


1.35 


creamware 


old moat surfac 


1.35 


1 .18 


iron flake 


old moat surfac 


1 . 18 


1 .13 


UID polychrome 
majolica 


old moat surfac 


1.13 




- 


pre-Castillo 


2.20 


2.09 


St . Johns 


modern disturbe 


2.20 


2.03 


polychrome 
pearlware 


modern disturbe 


2.20 


2.04 


red brick 


modern disturbe 


2.00 


1.64 


American mili- 
tary button 


moat fill 


2.04 


2.02 


- 


moat fill 


1 .98 


1 .64 


percussion cap 


moat fill 


1 .60 


1.31 


ginger beer 
bottle 


moat fill 


1.75 


1 .61 


iron oxide 


moat fill 


1.59 


1 .48 


- 


- 


1.57 


1 .52 


- 


- 


1.31 


.98 


- 


_ 



plastic 

transfer prin- 
ted pearlware 

1907 penny 

brown glass 



no cultural 
material 



modern deposit 
modern deposit 

modern deposit 

moat fill- 19th 
century 

moat fill- 19th 
century 



106 



Table 15, cont'd. Water Battery Provenience Guide 

Cultural 
PS# Provenience Top Ease TPQ Associate 

2.11 2.06 Aluminum foil modern distu: 

bance 

2.07 1.83 brown beer modern 

bottle disturbance 

2.25 2.08 - modern 

disturbance 

2.09 1.77 St. Johns modern 

disturbance 



153 


Area 1 


154 


Area 2 


none 


Feature 12 


161 


Feature 13 



107 

Table 16. Water Battery, Trench 1, Section A Artifacts 
(♦-indicates presence) 



A-rti-f-a-&4- -D e s c r i -pti-o-a 

CERAMICS 
Hispanic 

Puebla Polychrome 

UID Polychrome 

Olive Jar, unglaze 

Reyware 
TOTAL 
Other European 

Slipware 

Creamware 

Plain Pearlware 

Polychrome Painted 
Pearlware 

Transfer -Printed 
Pearlware 

Ginger Beer Bottle 

Unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 
Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 
UID sand-tempered 
Leon-Jef f erson 
Discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 

CULTURE 

Iron 



whole nails 
nail fragments 



Area 1 
PS 109 



1 1.000 
1 1 .000 



Pit 2 
FS 111 



1 1 1 



1 1 1 
222 



.222 
.556 



Zone 2 
FS 112* 



7 .773 
9 1.000 



15 

22 



1 


.046 


1 


.046 


2 


.091 



046 
182 



.046 
.046 

.313 



.046 
.046 



11 .500 
13 .591 
22 1.004] 



Feature 7 
FS 1 13 



1 1 



12 
6 



Zone 3 

FS 114 



Feature 

FS 118 



19 



4 1 



108 



T able 16, cont'd. 



Water Battery, Trench 1, Section A Artifacts 
(+-indicates presence) 



Arti fact . JDe s cription 

CERAMICS 
Hispanic 

Puebla Polychrome 

UID Polychrome 

Olive Jar,unglazed 

Reyware 
TOTAL 
Other European 

Slipware 

Creamware 

Plain Pearlware 

Polychrome Painted 
Pearlware 

Transfer-Printed 
Pearlware 

C-inger Beer Bottle 

TOTAL 
Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 
UID sand-tempered 
Leon-Jeff erson 
Discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON-CERAMIC MATERIAI 
CULTURE 

Iron 

whole nails 

nail fragments 



Zone 5 
Level 1 

FS 120 



500 
500 



.500 

.500 
1 .000 



Area 7 
FS 121 



Feat. 9 
Level 1 

FS 122* 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 
1 1.000 



.222 



.222 



Zone 5 
Level 2 

FS 123 



Zone 6 
Level 1 

FS 125 



.778 



.775 
1 .000 



1 .000 



3 1.000 2 



I 

38 

Z 

1 

37 
93 
•1102 



010 

059 

069 

010 
010 



.020 

.020 
.069 
.373 
.020 
.069 
.362 
.912 
1.002 



109 
Table 16, cont'd. 



rtifact Description 



FS 109 



FS 111 



FS 112 e 



FS 1 13 



FS 114 



spike fragments 
Washer 
Slag 

fragments 
flakes 
lumps 
lass 
green glass 
olive green glass 
melted green glass 
clear glass 
flat clear glass 



brown glass 


amber glass 


red glass 


teei 


thumb tack 


pin 


rass 


pin, straight 


comb 


washer 


I cannon fuse 


percussion caps 


i fragments 


lead 


minie ball 


shot 


pencil lead 


b-oer 


I 

pin 


Uttons 



crass button 
military button 



13 
4 
1 

12 
9 
i 



2 
39 



19 



12 

27 
3 



1 

3 



110 
Table 16, cont'd. 



Artif act Description 



FS 120 



FS 121 



FS 122 



FS 123 



FS 125 



FS 1 



spike fragment 
washer 

slag 

fragments 

flakes 

lumps 
Glass 

green glass 

olive green glass 

melted green glass 

clear glass 

flat clear glass 

brown glass 

amber glass 

red glass 
Steel 

thumb tack 

pin 
Brass 

straight pin 

comb 

washer 

cannon fuse 

percussion cap 

fragments 
Lead 

minie ball 

shot 

pencil lead 
Copper 

pin 
Buttons 

brass button 

military button 



15 



Ill 

Table 16, cont'd. 



shell button 
Pipes 

Kaolin clay stem 

Aboriginal bowl 
Pin foil fragment 
?lint spall 
Soapstone 
Quartz fragment 
Granite 
Construction material 

coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

brick 

concrete 

Burmed clay 

Slate 
Charcoal 
3oal 



FS 109 



FS 111 



+ 
+ 



FS 112 



FS 113 



FS 1 14 



FS 1 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



112 
Table 16, cont'd. 



Arti fact Description 

shell button 

Pipes 

Kaolin clay stem 
Aboriginal bowl 

Tin foil fragment 

Flint spall 

Soapstone 

Quartz fragment 

Granite 

Construction Materi al! 
coquina 
tabby- 
mortar 

plaster 
brick 

concrete 

burned clay 

slate 
Charcoal 
Coal 



FS 120 



FS 121 



FS 122 



FS 123 



FS 125 



FS 1 



113 

Table 17. Water Eattery, Test Square 2 Artifacts 
(♦-indicates presence) 

















Zone 








Zone 2 


Zone 2 




Level 




Area 1 


Area 2 


Level 1 


Level 2 


Feature 13 


SW 4 


Artifact Description 


FS 153 


PS 154 


FS 


155 * 


FS 156 


FS -161 


FS 16 


CERAMICS 
















His-panic 
















San Luis Polychrome 


, 




1 


.111 








Olive Jar ,unglazed 




1 .500 












TOTAL 


- 


1 .500 


1 


.111 


- 


- 


- 


Other European 
















Polychrome painted 




, 












creamware 






1 


.111 








Plain Pearlware 










1 1.000 






Transfer-printed 












.- 




pearlware 






1 


.111 








Early polychrome 
















painted pearlware 






1 


.111 








UID Eurned Refined 
















earthenware 






1 


.111 








Slipware 






1 


.111 








TOTAL 


- 


- 


5 


.556 


1 1.000 


- 


- 


ABORIGINAL 












1 . 500 




St. Johns stamped 




St. Johns stamped, 
















sooted 












1 .500 




San Marcos sxamped 






2 


.222 








UID sherd-Tempered 




1 .500 












Abo discards 






1 


.111 






3 


TOTAL 


- 


1 .500 


3 


• s > j 


- 


2 1.000 


5 1. 


- TOTAL CERAMICS 





2 1.000 


9 


.999 


1 1.000 


2 1.000 


5 1. 


NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 
















CULTURE 


1 




14 




^5 






pi ass 




I Green glass 


" 


Emerald green glass 




24 


10 




4 






Clear glass 


32 


34 


48 




38 




4 


Brown glass 

- 




4 .. 






1 




3 


Aqua glass 

I 




2 













114 

Table 17, cont'd 



Artifact Description 



Amber glass 
Iron 

whole nails 

nail fragments 

iron slag 

iron lumps 

iron fragments 

iron flakes 
Lead 

Pencil lead 

Bullet 
Brass 

Grommet 

Eye fastener 

brass fragments 
Copper 

1907 penny 

copper fragments 
Buttons 

Molded glass 

Iron 

Porcelain 

Brass military 

Bone 

Blue Faceted Cane 
Bead 

Clay marble 

Tin Foil 

Granite 

Rock fragment 

Building Rubble 

Coq/aina 

Tabby 



FS 153 



FS 154 



FS 155 



7 
29 



FS 156 



FS 161 



FS 1( 



115 
Table 17, cont'd. 



Artifact Description 

Brick 
Mortar 
Plaster 
Slate 
Pumice 



FS 153 



FS 154 



FS 155 '< 



FS 156 



FS 161 



FS 16 



116 



Interior Excavations 

High priority areas for archeclogical investigation on the 
Fort interior included the Seminole Room (# 4); the Latrines; 
Room 21 (the Gunner's room) and Room 14. Excavations in all cases 
were to determine conditions of sub-grade foundations ; to under- 
stand more clearly the past functions and uses of these areas; 
and to locate the position of the pre-1756 walls. 

Tests were carried out in the Latrines and in the Seminole 
Room. Rooms 14 and 21 were not investigated because these rooms 
were discovered, prior to excavation, to contain some of the few 
colonial tabby floors remaining in the Castillo. In addition, the 
unexpectedly deep and complex deposits in the Latrines and Seminole 
Room claimed an unexpectedly large portion of field time. 

Previous archeological excavations in the Castillo interior 
included Manucy's work in the guardroom and Sally Port areas (1960), 
delineating floor sequences and architectural details in those areas. 
In 1956, Harrington, Manucy and Griffin published the results of 
the 1953 excavations in the courtyard itself. These revealed the 
presence of a pre-Castillo aboriginal component; the grade elevations 
of earlier fort occupations; and the arc of structures that were 
present in that area between 1675 and the 1730s. 

By 1675, the north, south and east walls of the Castillo were 
completed, and the row of buildings documented by Harrington et al 
(1956) were present in the courtyard. The west side of the fortress 
was open, although a 12-foot high earthwork faced with stone was 
constructed on that side (Arana and Manucy:27) with a moat 14 feet 
wide and 10 feet deep. By 1684, the west rooms and curtain were 



217 



complete. In 1738, however, the Castillo interior underwent a 
major change, due to the need for repairs and for better defen- 
sive structures. The rooms around the four curtains were en- 
larged, and expanded toward the center of the courtyard. At 
the same time, the rooms were vaulted and the gundeck raised. 
By the 1750s the floorplan was similar to that seen today at the 
Castillo (Appendix 1, Map 3). 

The 1763 Castillo map (Appendix 1, Map 3), shows the con- 
figuration of the Castillo at the end of the first Spanish period. 
The 1785 Rocque map, drawn to assess the Port's condition, con- 
figuration and needed repairs at the end of the British period 
(Luis Arana, personal communication, 1980) shows the changes that 
took place during that occupation; most notably in the privies 
(Appendix 1, Map 5 )• 

It is quite likely that other repairs and renovations took place 
within the Castillo during the second Spanish period, although the 
documentation for these is not available at this time. From 1821- 
1933> the war department years, several repair and renovation pro- 
jects took place throughout the Fort, including, among others; 
construction of new privies; repair to the ramp (1885)» and terre- 
plein reconstruction (1866) (Luis Arana, personal communication, 
1980). Much of this work is physically marked by a fine aggregate, 
dark-grey cement-like mortar (ibid.). 

Specific information about the areas excavated in 1979 will 
be discussed below, with the sections on each room excavated. 
The Latrines 

The two small rooms beneath the ramp on the courtyard's south 



118 



<S 



O 

o 



u 

I- 2 
CO q; 

< K 

LJ < 

_J 



CM 

v- 

cTi 



00 
LJ 



LiJ 

CO 

O 
D. 

C 

o 
< 

CO 

< 



nK- 



CO 
LJ 
21 

LT 



en 

CM 



c 

UJ 



3 -J 

< < 

< T LU cj) 



CJ> _J N Q CO 



VEST 
TRINE 




TEST PIT \s I 


I ) 







jL 



K 





• H 




Z 




~ 




E 




a 


c 


FH 


CNJ 






c,_ 


M 


o 










r 


E 


rj 


c 


M 


c 


&h 


■H 




— 




CC 




U 




c 



side have been latrines or "necessarias" since the major renova- 
tion of the 1750s. The ramp itself was constructed after 1680 and 
was expanded during the 1750s renovation (Arana and Manucy 1977: 
30; 45). Arrendondo's map of 1737 (Appendix 1, Map 22) » shows two 
room divisions beneath the ramp; and a privy in what is now the 
visitors' restroom. On Castello's 1763 map, however, (Appendix 1, 
Map 5); the area beneath the ramp is shown as two seperate rooms; 
with three privy holes flush against the south wall of each room. 

By the time the 1785 map of Mariano de la Roque was drawn 
(Appendix 1, Map 5); the privies are shown in their present posi- 
tion, but with the six holes gone, and instead; two squarish-struc- 
tures near the center of each room. In addition, a drainpipe for 
the privies is shown apparently going under the east curtain, and 
emerging into what is now the water battery at a point exactly 
opposite the latrines themselves. These represent changes made 
during the British occupation (see above) . 

Excavations were carried out in the latrines for several pur- 
pos es : 

1 . to provide information on the conditions of the sub-grade 
courtyard inner wall. 

2. to provide information on the condition of the ramp sub-grade 
walls . 

3. to gather interpretive data on sanitary engineering systems 
used by the Castillo's colonial inhabitants. 

Three units were excavated to investigate these questions 
(Fig. 20). The west latrine contained a raised, 1 m. high coquina 
rock ledge extending the length of the south wall, .80 m. in width 



The east latrine did not have such a ledge. Both rooms have a 
modern floor of crushec coquin<a and sand, placed there in 1963 
(Luis Arana, personal communication, 1980). 

The east latrine excavation unit was a trench extending across 
the room from east to west; 4.5 m. by 6m.; adjacent to the south 
wall of the latrine. Since the roof of the latrines (at the base 
of the ramp) sloped radically toward the west, accesibility to the 
west latrine was hindered (the west end was only 28 to 31 cm. high 
from floor to ceiling). Thus a 1.8 by 1.6 meter test pit was placed 
encompassing the entire western 1.8 meters of the latrine. Access 
to the unit could then be gained through the eastern portion of 
the room, where the doorway was located. The top of the ground 
slopes toward the east, with a 16 cm. difference between the east 
and west ends of the room. In addition to the units inside the 
latrines, a unit (T? 2) was placed outside the west latrine in 
the position shown in Figure 20. This was 1.5 meters east-west, 
.88 meters wide on the west end and .83 meters wide on the east 
( due to the necessity of working around existing paving 
stones in the courtyard) • 
The East Latrine 

Excavation in the east latrine was complicated by the presence 
of a massive complex of PVC pipes, which contained most of the 
electrical and water lines serving the fort. This pipe complex 
was encountered at an average depth of 3-43 MMSL or 10 cm. below 
present surface. Since these pipes covered the entire eastern 
3.5 meters of the unit; the exccavation was restricted to the 
western one meter of Trench 5, below Zone 1. 



±c 1 



-TRENCH 5 — 
WEST PROFILE 



I M.B.D. 



1 



sa-Q 



C0QUINA8 TABBY 
LEDGE 
(FEATURE 14) 



r '~\' Ttf C ^ " 



D- 



- r.ocerr. duff i- hunus 

- i-rey-fcrcw! 3ar.c wi £.".■; II flec/.ir - 

- nee. browr. ;»-: , .;i sneil flec/iir.r 
car-'. cr"«T, sane <- sr;ell flec/._r.r 
linhr zrr<.-r. sane: wi shell flecKir.g 
•nee. orowr. sane wi vnoie shell 
ned . crown sar.e 

lirht Drew, sane 

tar. sar.e 

dark rre-'-rrcr. sar.c 

rclc sterile sar.c 

-ottied yelloKj^cld, brown, tan sar.c 

mottled yellow ,browr. sane 
wi shell flecking 

ear. sar.e «fitn :r-zr.ei shell 
cy:;er s.-.ell fccrlr.r 
tabby fleer 

loese concentrated coc.'-ir.c 
burnt sell, s.-.ell er.arcoal 
ccr.crete fleer 

clac/. -iccer. soil wi whole shell 
car/, crcv.'r. sell »; /.T.cle sr.ell 
car/ c rowr. . rclc sell wi cr.ells 



_SCALE_ 

10 20 ~30CM 



MODERN 
CONCRETE 8TABBY 




-^-ZONE 2 



Q ZONE A 



FLOOR 2 
ZONE 3 



p — p FLOOR 3 



T 



•ZONE 5 



ZONE 6 



CASA 

EAST LATRINE 

STRAT RECORD 10 

7-9-79 

DEAGAN 



FIGURE 21 

2s.st Latrine, Trench 5 
.Jest Profile 



V- 



At 3.25 MMSL (west end) a coquina and plaster ledge (Feature 
14) was encountered in the southwest corner of the trench. This 
was .70 m. wide, sloping toward the east slightly; and was apparent 
intruded into and removed by the pipe complex in that portion of 
the trench. This seems to be a continuation of the ledge present 
in the west latrine; which occurs in that room at 3.61 MMSL; and 
which is highly consistent with Feature 14 considering the eastward 
slope of the feature. 

Figure 21 shows the west profile of Trench 3, which was loca- 
ted directly under the dividing wall between the two latrines . Two 
floor levels are present in the room, one at 2.96 MMSL (Floor 2) 
and one at 2.80 MMS1 (fllor 3). Floor 2 overlies Zone 3, which 
contains transfer-printed pearlware and is a second Spanish period 
deposit. Floor 3 (2.80 MMSL) overlies Zone 4, which contains no 
artifacts more precisely dateable than St. Johns Series aboriginal 
ceramics. It is most likely, however; that Zone 4 represents the 
initial deposit preparing the latrine for its lowest floor. This 
is suggested by the fact that Zone 4 lies directly upon the abo- 
riginal midden noted throughout the Fort (see above, South Covered 
Way section). Here it is located at 2.61 MMSL (in west latrine 
it was 16 cm. higher; in the South Covered W<-y it was at 2. 80 MMSL) 
There are no floors predating Floor 3 in this unit. 

Floor 2 is of tabby, averaging 7 cm. thickness and Floor 3 is 
also of deteriorating tabby, 10-12 cm. in thickness. The coquina 
ledge (Feature 14) presently is about 45 cm. above Floor 3. The 
most likely explanation for this ledge is that it contained the 
privy holes represented in the 1763 map when Floor 3 'would have 
been in use. Results of the west latrine work suggest that the 



upper AO to 45 cm. of the ledge were added during the late Bri- 
tish or second Spanish periods; which would place the ledge 
nearly level with Floor 3 during xhe first Spanish period. 
Unfortunately, reluctance to disturb historic fabric of the 
ledge precluded investigation of that interpretation. 
The West Latrine - interior 

This area contained a very complex depositional situation, 
and while it was undisturbed by pipe construction, it was badly 
decomposed and deteriorated and subject to a great deal of cult- 
ural activity. The activity sequence was the same as that re- 
vealed in the east latrine; however more information on features 
was present. Considerable construction and repair activity took 
place here, accounting for the large number of zones and areas 
listed in Table 18. As soil horizons in the unit changed in 
consistency and color, they were given new zone designations and 
excavated seperately. In some cases these zones were only a few 
centimeters thick. Additionally, every discretely bounded soil 
discoloration within a zone was given an "Area" designation and 
excavated seperately. Many of these, after excavation, were 
revealed as the result of inadvertent depositional processes 
(i.e., a coquina block partially deteriorating before removal), 
and are often combined with one another in this discussion of 
the sequence of activities in the west latrine. 

Figures 22-2^ show the east, north and south elevation-pro- 
files of T&st Pit 1 in the west latrine. Two floors and two "sur- 
faces" were present in the units (The surfaces were irregular, 
deteriorated areas cf compressed tabby, coquina and lime, which 
were present only in portions of the unit). 



124 



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cr 



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CO 

I 







£0: 







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uj 5 

en w 

O UJ _ 

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to o 
c\j c: 





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c 




K 


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C 


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CM 




O 


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- 


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C 




a 


.— ■ 


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d 


-' 


-^ 


c 


— 


~ 


— 


r. 


c 



ft, — 



:; 



125 



Cr 


^q 




C\! 








4^ 


4-> 


til 


K 


K 


i^- 


a 


r 


r 


|3 


r.i 


o 








LU 



O 

cr 



cr 
c 



G_ 

00 
LJ 




LlI 



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< i- 

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< LJ 

0$: 



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< < 

Id O 
Q 00 



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Ph 5-1 



c 






fcn C C ~ 

• - _ ; 

4-2 ^_: 

— — > 



Floors 2 and 3 coorespond almost exactly to the elevations of 
those floors in the east latrine. Floor 3 was partially removed 
by the construction of Feature 13, and thus does not appear in 
the east profile (Fig. 23) since it remained only in the west 
end of the unit. 

Floor 3 lies directly above the aboriginal midden layer dis- 
cussed above; and represented by layer "T" in Figure 23 (this was 
encountered only outside of Feature 13). The aboriginal component 
was excavated as Zones 7-9. The floor (also appearing in other 
parts of the unit as Zone 6* is almost certainly the earliest 
floor in the room. At the place in time represented by Floor 3 
(minimally 1750-1763); the coquina bsi quette or ledge on the 
south side of the latrine (Feature K, Figs. 25, 27) most likely 
contained the three privy holes represented on the 1763 map. Figure 
25, showing the south face of the ledge, suggests that it may have 
been made in at least two phases. 

At 3.26 MMSL (ca. 40 cm. below the ledge top, and 15 cm. above 
Floor 3) a recess, 8-10 cm. wide, filled with irregular chunks cf 
coquina, is present. Above that level a solid slab of coquina, 
partially faced with mortar and plaster, constitutes the upper 
stage of Feature 14. Below the recess, the feature is comprised of 
irregularly coursed coquina masonry, extending 35 cm. to rest on 
a packed footing of coquina chunks and oyster shell (Fig. 22). 

It is suggested that the recess at 3.26 MMSL represents the 
original top of Feature 14, and the original location of the 
privy holes shown in the 1765 map. These would have been three 
holes in a coquina block ledge or banquette, raised 10-15 cm. 



WEST LATRINE 
TPJ JlESTWAlL 

PLti 




FIGURZ 25 
'est Latrine, Test Pit I, 



w C L- 



elevation 



above Floor 3. Support for this interpretation is provided by 
the following data: 

1. The present top of Feature 14 is a solid slab of cocuina, 
with no evidence of previous openings in the top. No seams or 
breaks are apparent. 

2. If the 3.26 MMSL recess was the level of the original privy 
holes; these holes would have been about 10 cm. above Floor 3, 
which is a useable height for a privy hole. If, however, the 
present top of Feature 14 is the original top, it would have been 
(at the west end) some 60 cm. (2.27* ) above the floor. Considering 
particularly that the privy holes were not flush with the room 
side cf the bonquette (Feature 14), 2.27 feet would have been a 
difficult and inconvenient height for a privy hole (FSU field 
school members, personal communication, St. Augustine, 1980). 

3. Although Floor 2 (second Spanish period) slopes downward from 
west to east, Floor 3 (first Spanish period) does not. The present 
top of Feature 14 also slopes downward from west to east; while 
the recess in Feature 14 does not. This also tends to support 

the presumed association between Floor 3 and the recess at 3.26 
MKSL as the top of the privy holes . 

Taken together, these data most strongly indicate that the 
privy holes shown on the 1763 map were at the recess in Feature 14, 
and associated with Floor 3. 

The next construction phase in the latrine is represented 
by Zones 4 and 5 (lower "F" layer in Fig. 23), Feature 13 and 
Floor 2. Feature 13 is the rectangular, trough-like coquina 
structure shown in Figures 26 and 27. The base of the Feature's 




,> 












FIGURE 26 
.."est La-trine : Feature 15 



J. JJ. 



NORTH WALL 




CASA 

EAST LATRINE -T.P 



SOUTH WALL 



COQUINA FEATURES 



icm 

50 



FIGURE 2? 



"'e st ^irir.e, Test Pit 1 
Plan of Feature 15 (Privy) 

and Feature 14 (Ledge) 



1 ~> "> 



south wall is at 2.81 MMSL; some 3-4 cm. above Flocr 3. lae 
lower 15 cm. of Feature 15's walls are approximately 40 cm. 
thick, while above the 13 cm. level they are some 20 cm. thick. 
Figure 23 reveals that two other phenomena occur at that same 
level; the top of Zones 4-5 (lower layer "B") and, on the out- 
side of the feature, Floor 2 occurs at that level. It seems 
most likely, therefore, that the Floor 2 level (corresponding 
tc the change in thickness of the Feature 15 walls and the top 
of layer "B") was the level at which this second activity phase 
took place. 

Feature 15 was most probably a trcugh-type urinal in the 
center of the latrine, replacing the privy holes in the previo- 15 
phase associated with Floor 3- xhis urinal feature may be that 
squarish structure shown in the 1785 Roque map (which showed one 
such structure in each side of the Privy), 

The lower 15 cm. of the Feature's walls were sub-grade at 
that time; suggested both by the fact that the coquina blocks 
comprising it were simply placed on soil with no footing, and by 
the discontinuities occurring 15 cm. above Feature 15's base, that 
are discussed above. Floor 2 was probably the grade elevation 
at that time (ca. 3.03 MMSL), This floor sloped toward the east, 
13 cm. from the west to the east end of Test Pit 1. It did not 
occur inside Feature 15. No flooring material was evident within 
Feature 15. 

The feature itself abbutted the north wall of the latrine, 
and ended .45-. 65 m. east of the room's west wall. Reference to 
Figure 24 [the north profile of Test Pit 1 (the room's north wall) 1 



reveals The confusing situation of superimposed coquina ledges, 
construction and repairs at that level. It also reveals, how- 
ever, an interesting repair feature which illuminates the func- 
tion of Feature 15. At the west end of the profile, a circular 
hole which was subsequently refilled can be seen. The original 
hole extended from 3.59-3.09 MMSL, and was .40 m. wide. The 
base of the hole would have been just a few centimeters above 
Floor 2 (which was crumbled and extremely deteriorated in the 
portion of the unit adjacent to the north wall) . 

This hole is suggested to have been present in the latrine 
wall at the time when Floor 2 and Feature 15 were in use. It may 
have functioned as an opening through which water from the court- 
yard well could have been slushed in order to rinse out the urinal 
trough into a hole connected with the drain shown on Roque's 1785 
map and discussed above. The eastward slope of the room at that 
level, the relative elevations of the base of the hole and of 
Floor 2, and the depiction of just such a trough and drain system on 
the 1785 map all support this interpretation. The only major 
interpretive difficulty is the absence of evidence for a prepared 
floor inside Feature 15. The extremely deteriorated and disturbed 
nature of all the deposits may have obscured such evidence; or 
cleaning out of the urinal trough prior to filling it in may have 
removed such evidence. It is also possible that no prepared 
floor was present inside the feature, since it is from that area 
that the only coprolites found at the Castillo were recovered. 

The precise eating of Feature 15, Floor 2 and the hole in 
the north wall are somewhat more difficult than the suggestion of 
their functions. Floor 2 overlies Zones 4 and 5 (lower layer "B" 



in Figure 23) > which contained no diagnostic ally dateabie items 
other than a single sherd of shell edged pearlware in Zone 4 
(see Table 20) . Thus the TPQ for Floor 2 and its associated 
feature 15 is 1785 (the same year that the square structures appea; 
in the privy on the Roque map) . It must be noted, however, that 
Floor 2 was broken in places, and did not "seal" the lower "B" 
(Zones 4-5) deposit. It is possible, therefore, that the single 
shell edged sherd could have been deposited through one of the 
many disturbances that apparently took place in the area through 
its history, particularly since the floor and feature were almost 
certainly British period features. 

However, if the interpretation of the privy holes and Floor 
3 given above is valid, the Floor 2 and the associated Feature 15 
must date to after 1763 (when the privy holes still appear on the 
map) . Thus at some time after 1763, the layer of earth constituti; 
Zones 4-5 (lower layer "B", Fig. 23) was deposited, raising the 
floor level to that of Floor B and providing support for the 
lower 15 cm. of Feature 15 's walls. 

Overlying Floor 2, and presumably added to fill in the privy 






ter its colonial usage, was Zone 3. This zone contains early 



hand painted pearlware, mini e balls and a 5-hole bone button, and 
is capped by "Surface 1". The mini ball (post-1850 (Peterson 
1964:219) and 5-hole button (similar to South's Type 19 from Bruns 
wick Town dating 1837-1865 '(in Noel Hume 1978:91) suggest that 
Zone 3 was deposited during the American period, after 1850. 
Zone 3 (Layer "D" on Fig. 23) was present both inside and outside 
of Feature 15. 



1 ", 



Zone 3 was capped by Surface 1, a layer of very deteriorated 
mortar and tabby rubble, occurring both inside and outside of 
Feature 15 at 3.25 MMSL. The floor itself contained a minis ball, 
indicating only its presence after 1850. It is possible also that 
Surface 1 represents a post-colonial use level in the privy. At 
the time Surface 1 was in use, Feature 15 's walls were some 15 cm. 
high, above Surface 1, and Surface 1 was apparently poured around 
the Feature. Another piece of data suggesting that the privy may 
have been used in this fashion into the American period is the 
hole (discussed above) in the room's north wall. This hole, 
interpreted as the opening through which courtyard water was 
si Qihed in order to clean out the privies, was either filled in, 
added to, or repaired during the period when the dark grey cement 
known to be associated with the War Department, was used. The 
most probable date for this work was during the 1885 ramp repair 
discussed above. 

At the time of this cement work, the grade inside the west 
latrine was probably at about 3.35 MMSL (just at the base of the 
present loose coquina and sand flooring). That level is the 
highest elevation of the exposed grey cement. Above that point, 
the wall is carefully smoothed and plastered. This work appears 
to have been done following the use of Surface 1 (since the grey 
cement would have been exposed at that elevation). The top of 
the cement repair (3.35 MMSL) conforms closely to the top of the 
zone covering Surface 1 (Zone 2, Upper layer "B" in Fig. 23), 
which is at 3-36 MMSL. Thus it appears most likely that the 
hole was open while Surface 1 was in use (both inside and outside 



1^6 



of Feature 15); was filled in at some point after 1885; and then 
Zone 2 was added, "bringing the latrine up to within 5 cm. of its 
present grade. Zone 2 itself does not provide a great deal of 
help in dating this event; however it does contain a s-88 rifle 
cartridge casing, dating the deposit of Zone 2 (and thus the ces- 
sation of Surface 2 and Feature 15's usage, as veil as the filling 
in of the north wall hole) to some time after 1880 (Peterson 1964: 
78-80). Zone 1 itself was the presently existing floor, establish* 
in 1963. 

The period of Indian incarceration at the Castillo following 
the Seminole period gives further insight into the use and aban- 
donment of the latrines. During the Plains Indians occupation 
(1875-1878) privies especially for the Indians were made in what is 
now Room 23 (the firewood room) (Luis Arana, personal communica- 
tion 1980). This suggests that the latrines under investigation 
were in use for the soldiers at that time. Quite probably the 
newer Indian latrines were taken over by the Fort's soldiers after 
the final departure of the Indians in 1887, abandoning the privy 
under the ramp. This corresponds very closely to the post- 1880 
date for Zone 2 as the end of the ramp privy use. 
Latrine Sum mary 

Due to the complicated and often confusing sequence of 
events in the latrines, and the resulting complicated archaeolo- 
gical by-products of those events, a summary of the interpretations 
documented above, is offered below. It must be noted, however, 
that these interpretations are based on only a small sample of 
the total system. In addition, the very important historical 



■ _> I 



documentation data was not available ax this writing; and may 
alter these interpretations. Both latrines are included in the 
summary . 

The earliest activity in the vicinity of the latrines was 
the aboriginal midden layer (Zone 7-S) noted in other areas of 
the Fort. Imring xhe 1730s-50s renovation, the latrines were 
established in xheir present location. This is represenxed archaeo- 
logically by Floor 3 (2.78 MMSL) in boxh latrines; and Feaxure 14, 
Xhe coquina ledge on Xhe souXh wall of Xhe laXrines . AX Xhis 
eariiesx phase, Xhe ledge was probably abouX 45 cm. lower than 
ix is today; and conXained six privy holes (xhrough boXh laXrines) 
in a banquette of covered coquina blocks. This situation lasted 
until at least 1763. 

After i 763 * either during the British period, a 45 cm. plas- 
tered coquina slab was placed over the earlier privy holes, rai- 
sing the banquette to its present height. The floor was raised 
(Zones 4-5) at xhis Xime, and a recXangular, urinal-like Xrough 
of coquina block was added (FeaXure 15). The floor aX Xhis period 
was Floor 2 (3.03 MMSL) in boXh rooms. Also aX Xhis Xime, a 
circular hole was cuX inXo Xhe north wall (at the wesx end) of 
xhe wesx laXrine, probably Xo provide an opening Xhrough which 
water from xhe courxyard could be sloshed Xo rinse ouX Xhe Feaxure 
15 privy inXo xhe drain shown on Xhe 1785 map. The base of xhe 
hole is ;jusx a few cenXimeXers above Xhe Xop of Floor 2. 

A single sherd of shell edged pearlware (1780-1830) indicaXes 
a posX-1780 deposixion under Floor 2, while Xhe appearance of 
FeaXure 15 on a 1785 map indicaXes a pre- 1785 consxruction. "Ine 



13a 



lack of integrity in the deposits and the very disturbed nature 
of The area, however, suggests that a more reliable bracket would 
be 1764 (the year after The six hole privy appears on The CasTello 
map) to 1784 (when the rectangular troughs appear on the Roque map, 
It seems most likely that the renovation of The privies took place 
during the British period. Final confirmation of this awaits 
the historical data section, British period. 

This privy configuration was apparently used until well into 
the American period. At some point in time after 1850, the privy 
was cleaned out (removing the British/Spanish II Floor 2 inside 
Feature 15), a 20 cm. thick layer of earth was added both inside 
and outside the privy (Zone 3)» and a tabby surface (since deterio: 
ted), Surface 1, was poured, both inside and outside Feature 15. 
At that time, Feature 15 stood some 15 cm. above Surface 1, and ma; 
have still been used during this time as a privy. 

After 1880, Surface 1 and Feature 15 were covered by Zone 2 
and Zone 1. The wall between the privies was added, and the pri- 
vies assumed their present configuration. This is believed to hav< 
occurred ca.1887, when the Plains Indians left the Castillo and 
the privy in Room 23 became available for soldiers' use. 



Table 18. Latrine Provenience Guide 

Datum: 4.67 MMSL (All elevations in meters above mean 
sea level) 

East Latrine - Trench 5 



FS# 


Provenience 


Ton 


Base 


ipq 


Cultural 
As sociation 


none 


Zone 


1 




3-36 


3.34 


(modern) 


Modern 


none 


Zone 


2, 


Level 1 


3.34 


3.25 


(disturbed) 


Pipe- disturbed 


none 


Zone 


2, 


Level 2 


3.25 


3.05 


( " ) 


Pipe- disturbed 


165 


Zone 


2, 


Level 3 


3.05 


2.96 


brown glass 


19th century - 
post-colonial 


168 


Zone 


3, 


Level 1 


2.84 


2.62 


transfer print 
pearlware (dist 


. ) late British 


182 


Zone 


4 




2.62 


2.61 


St. Johns 


Spanish I 


184 


Zone 


c 


Level 1 


2.61 


2.47 


San Marcos 


pre-Castillo 
aboriginal 


186 


Zone 


- > 


Level 2 


2.40 


2 . 22 


San Marcos 


ii 


166 

none 

186 


Floor 2 
Floor 3 
Area 2 




2.96 
w-2.80 
e-2.74 

2.61 


2.87 
2.70 
2.54 


Green glass 
no artifacts 
St. Johns 


British floor 

Spanish I 

pre-Castillo 
aboriginal 


none 


Feature 


14 


3.25 




— 


coquina ledge- 
Spanish I 


West 


.Ljatrine - 


Test Pix 1 










none 


Zone 


1 




3.39 


3.36 


- 


Modern 


i "° 


Zone 


2 




3.36 


3.13 


brass rifle 
shell casing 


American perioc 


- 

173 


Zone 


3 




3.13 


3.03 


hand painted 
pearlware 


American perioc 


174 


Zone 
15) 


* 
y 


(in Feature 


3.06 


2.97 


slipware 


American perioc 


187 


Zone 


4 




2.86 


2.75 


shell edged 
pearlware 


British fill 


188 

■ 


Zone 


2 




2.75 


2.43 


San Marcos 


British fill 


190 


Zone 

15) 


5 


(in Feature 


2.91 


2.77 


Olive Jar 


British fill 


I 


Zone 


6 




2.74 


2.71 


St. Johns 


Floor 3 deteric 
ration 


193 


Zone 


7 




2.71 


2.68 


San Marcos 


Aboriginal 


| 194 


Zone 


c 




2.68 


2.47 


San Marcos 


Aboriginal 


' 198 


Zone 


9 




2.47 


2.30 


San Marcos 


Aboriginal 



JJQ 



Table 18, cont'd. Latrine Provenience Guide 



FSr 


Provenience 


172 


Surface 1 


181 


Floor 2 


none 


Feature 15 


175 


Areal 


none 


Area 2 


176 


Area 3 


177 


Area 4 


178 


Area 5 


189 


Area 6 


179 


Area 7 


191 


Floor 3 


195 


Area 10 


197 


Area 1 1 


196 


Area 12 


none 


Feature 17 



Cultural 
Ton Base TPQ Associati 



3.25 3.06 mini ball American 
3.03^2*78 brass button British P 



3.35 


2.81 




British/S; 
nish II 1; 


2.95 


2.85 


San Marcos 


soil disc 
tion:Span. 


2.93 


2.83 


- 


ii 


2.93 


2.91 


St. Johns 


n 


2.95 


2.81 


St. Johns 


n 


3.00 


2.77 


iron nail 


n 


2.95 


2.73 


Pip est em 


ii 


2.94 


2.92 


St. Johns 


i' 


2.78 


2.71 


UID aborigi- 
nal 


1750-1763 



2.47 2.30 no artifact soil disco! 

tion:pre-l; 

2.46 2.38 San Marcos " 

2.44 2.30 San Marcos " 

2.30 1.92 Aboriginal 

West Latrine - Test Pit 2 (in courtyard) 



none 


Zone 


1 


none 


Zone 




205 


Zone 


; 


209 


Zone 


4 


210 


Zone 


5 


2^7 


Zone 


6 


229 


Zone 


7 



200 Feature 18, Level 1 

203 Feature 18, Level 2 

none Surface 2 

212 Floor 3 

201 Area 1 



3.26 


3.24 


unscreened 1952 fill 


3.24 


3.21 


n 


2.95 


2.82 


red roof tile 


2.82 


2.79 




2.79 


2.77 


San Marcos 


2.77 


2.54 


St. Johns 


2.54 


2.33 


no artifacts pre-abori 
leach zon 


3.21 


3.H 


unscreened 
surface 


3.H 


3.04 


annular ware 


3.04 


2.97 


no artifacts 


2.80 


2.74 


Olive jar 


3.08 


2.93 


St. Johns, 
red brick 



i h i 



Table 18, cont'd. Latrine Provenience Guide 



F5# 


Proveni 


ence 




To? 


Las e 


TPQ 


Cultural 
Association 


202 


Area 


2 






3.08 


2.95 


Iron oxide 




211 


Area 


3, 


Level 


1 


2.93 


2.69 


Red brick 




217 


Area 


3, 


Level 


2 


2.69 


2.27 


Kail fragments 




216 


Area 


L 






2.89 


2.57 


St. Johns 




223 


Area 


I 






2.57 


2.38 


St. Johns 




222 


Area 


6, 


Level 


I 


2.46 


2.33 


St. Johns 




226 


Area 


6, 


Level 


2 


2.33 


1.80 


St. Johns 





Artifact 

Description 



['able 19. 



Zone 2 
Level 3 



142 

East Latrine Artifacx Distribution 
(-•--indicates presence) 



.tloor 2 



Zone 4 



Area 2 



Zone 5 
Level 1 



/-one 
Level 



CERAMICS 
Hispanic 

TOTAL 
Other European 



TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns 
Plain 

St. Johns 
Stamped 

San Marcos 

Plain 

Laraar-like 
Bold Incised 

discards 

TOTAL . 

TOTAL CERAMIi 

NON- CERAMIC 

MATERIAL CULTU 



1 

IS1 



Glass 

green 

clear 

brown , - 
emeralo. green 

Iron 

nail fragmen 
lumps/flakes 

Brass button 

Lead shot 

Kaolin Pipe 
Bowl 

Coprolite 

Chert debitage 

Rock 

Black electric] 
wire tape 



clay 



1 1 . 000 



1.000 
1.000 



6 
■+ 
1 
2 



3 .750 
1 .250 



1 1.000 



4 1.000 
4 1 . 000 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 



3 .375 



5 .625 



S 1.000 
8 1.000 



1 

2 1. 

2 1 . 



Artif acx 
Description 



'able 19 , com ' d. 



■1^-3-- — - - 

j^ast Latrine Artifact Distribution 

(^-indicates presence) 



z-one ^ 
Level 3 



Floor 2 



Zone A- 



Area 2 



Zone 5 
Level 1 



Zone 5 
Level 2 



Construction 

Material 

coquina 
tabby 
mortar 
brick 

slate 



4 
+ 



mk 



Table 20. West Latrine, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distribution 
( ^-indicates presence) 



Artifact Descripti 



Zone 2 



Feature 15 

Surface 1 



Zone 3 



Zone 3 
Feature 15 



Are; 



Are j 



CERAMICS 

Hispanic 

Puebla Blue on 
white 

UID Plain 
majolica 

Olive Jar 
unglazed 

TOTAL 

Other European 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

North Devon gra- 
vel tempered wa;re 

Slipware 

Creamware . 

Plain pearlware 

Early painted 
pearlware 

Erown salt-glared 
stoneware 

white salt-glared 
stoneware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 



San Ware os Pla 



in 4 



San Marcos Stamped 



Deptford check 
stamped 

UID sand-tempe 

UID Aboriginal 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



:red1 



100 



1 

10d 11 

10C 

40C 
10C 



10C 

200 

900 



10 1.000 14 



* 



149 

149 

571 
071 



071 



071 
785 



.071 

.071 
l'.004 



143 



143 
286 



143 

143 
143 
143 



4 .571 



.14: 



. 143 
1 .00 



1 

12 



333 

333 



083 



.083 



I 


.083 


1 


.083 


1 


.083 



083 
250 

583 

998 



1.000 



1 1 .0 



2 1.000 
2 1.000 



1.0 
1 .0 



Table 20, cont'd 



145 

Vest Latrine, Test Fit 1: Artifact Distribution 
(f-indicates presence) 



rtifact Description 



Area 5 



Area 7 



Area 6 



Zone 5, 
interior 
Feat. 15 



Floor 3 



Zone 6 



^SFAMiCS 

Hisoani 

Puebla Flue en 
white 

UID Plain 

majolica 

Olive Jar, 
unglazed 

TOTAL 

Other European 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

North Devon gr* 
vel tempered ware 

Slipware 

Creamware 

Plain peariwarje 

Early painted 
pearl ware 

Frown salt-glajzed 
stoneware 

white salt-glazed 
stoneware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

Johns Plain a 

: t . Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain' 

San Marcos Stamped 

Deptford Chech- 
e tamped 

UID sand-tempered 
UID Aboriginal 

discards 5 

TOTAL 10 

TOTAL CERAMICS 10 



.400 
.100 



.50C 

1 .ooc 

1.00C 



1 .000 



1 vOOO 
1 .000 



2 



9 
16 



125 

125 

188 



.564 
1 .002 
1 .002 



E 

q 



1 11 

111 



5 .555 



333 



888 
999 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 
1 1 . 000 



i 



.222 

.482 



2 .074 

6 .222 

27 1.000 

27 1.000 



Table 20, cont'd 



146 
West Latrine, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distribution 

(+-indicates presence) 



Artifact Description 



Zone 7 
Level 1 



Zone 8 
Level 1 



Area 1 



Area 1 



Zone 9 
Level 1 



CERAMICS 

Hisnanic 

Puebla Blue on 
white 

UID Plain 
majolica 

Clive Jar, 
unglazed 

TOTAL 

Other Purorear. 

UID coarse 
earthenware 

North Devon gra- 
vel tempered ware 

Slipware 

Creamware ■ 

Plain Pearlwar 

Parly painted 
pearl ware 

Brown salt-gla|ze 
stoneware 

white saix-gl4zed 
stoneware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain25 

St. Johns StaripedS 

San Marcos Plain 6 .071 

San Marcos Stiimped8 .095 

Deptford chec 
stamped 

UID sand-temp 

UID Aborigina 

discards 

TOTAL 



'=red 



TOTAL CERAMIC! 3 SI 1 .000 



34 

84 



.036 

.40^ 
1.00C 



. 298j 5 1 .000 
.095 



1 .000 
1 .000 



.300 
.500 



1 .000 
1 . 000 



1 1.000 



13 .867 



.133 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 



15 
15 



1 .000 
1.000 



Table 20, cont'd. 



1^7 
West Latrine, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distribution 

(-^-indicates presence) 



ZOne 2 



rtifact Descr iption 



Feature 15 



Zone 5 



l one 5 
Feat. 15 



Area 3 



Area 4 



j-iase 



c 1 i v e 


green 




32 


light 


green 




10 


clear 






27 


clear 


flat 






Iron 








whole 


nails 




7 


nail : 


fragments 




122 


spike 


fragment 




2 


bucket rim frag 


nen 


t <L 


ring 








ornament 






tube 








fragments /lumps 
flakes 


/ 


+ 


Leac 


ball 






minie 


1 


shot 






1 


Brass 









button 

rifle casing 
o ns true t ion Material 
coquina 
tabby 



morxar 

piaster 

daub 

brick 
park clay ball 
kaolin pipe stem 
Bone butxon 
poprolites 
Flint 
flock 



40 
3 
6 
7 



46 



10 

4 
7 



148 

Table 20, cont'd. West Latrine, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distributee 

(^-indicates presence) 



Artifact Description 



Area 5 



Glass. 

olive green 

light green 

clear 

clear flat 
Iron 

whole nails 

nail fragment 

spike fragment 

bucket rim frag) 

ring 

ornament 

tube 

fragments /lumps]/ 
flakes 

Lead 

minie ball 

shot 
Brass 

button 

rifle casing 
Construction Material 



coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

daub 

brick 
Dark clay ball 
Kaolin pipe stem 
Bone button 
Coprolites 
Flint 
Rock 



Area 7 



Area 6 



Zone 5, 
interior 
Feat. 15 



Floor 3 



Zone t 



Table 20, conx'c. 



149 

west Daxrine, Test Tit 1: Artifact Distribution 
( ^--indicates presence) 



Lrtifact Description 



Zone 7 
j_>evel 1 



Zone £ 
Devel 



Are; 



Area 



Zone 9 
Devel 1 



olive green 
light green 
clear 



Iron 



whole nails 

nail fragments 

ST ike fragment 

bucket rim fragment 

ring 

ornament 

tube 

fragments /flakes/ 
lumps 

Dead 

minie ball 

shot 

button 

rifle casing 
Construction Material 



coquina 

I tabby 
mortar 
piaster 
| daub 

brick 
■Dark clay ball 

Kaolin pipe stem 
■Bone button 
■Coprolites 
-Flint 
BRock 



r 



250 



Wes t Latr i ne, Test P it 2 y Courtyard Ex cavation s 

A single test unit was excavated adjacent to the west privy 
at the request of the project architect. This unit allowed the 
observation of the sub-grade condition of the ramp's north footing, 
as well as providing information on courtyard surfaces and latrine 
alterations. The location of the unit, designated as "Test Pit 2, 
West Latrine", is shown in Figure 20, with the provenience data 
and artifact distribution information in Tables 21-22. Information 
on the condition of the footing can be found in the project archi- 
tect's report. The unit's slightly irregular size was due to the 
desire to remove the contemporary courtyard paving stones along 
a natural break. 

A chronological sequence of activity conforming closely to 
that found in the latrines was documented in Test Pit 2. The 
single major exception was the presence cf soil zones containing 
exxremely minor amounts of cultural materials beneath the aborigi- 
nal midden layer found at the earliest levels of the latrine occu- 
pation. These layers were slightly disturbed by the ramp construc- 
tion in their immediate vicinity, and are shown on Figure 28 as 
Zones 7-8, although they contained only aboriginal sherds. 

Zone 6 (Layer "T", Fig. 28) was the aboriginal midden layer 
predating the Castillo construction. This was apparent at 2.74 
MMSL, within 3 cm. of the elevation at which the layer was found 
inside the west latrine. This conforms closely also to the ele- 
vation of this layer as it was excavated by Harrington in 1953 
(2.60 MMSL) (Harrington, Manucy and Griffin 1956:117). 

Resting on this aboriginal midden layer was a decomposed 



151 



COURTYARD SURFACE 




•3.34 MMSL 



SURFACE 



FIGURE' 28 

l.'est Latrine/Courtyard 
Test Pit 2, East Profile 



!.- : 



nooern ourt j nunuj 

grey-brown sar.c wi shell fleckin- 

nea . brown 3£nc wi snell riecKir.- 

aark brown sar.c wi shell flec>:i.r.r 
lirht crown sane »'i snell fleckin; 

ned. brown sane -i whclc shell 
nee. brown sar.c 



i ' -.- 



orcwr. sar.c 



tar, sar.c 

r.arK srey-brown sar.c 

-old sterile sar.c 

mottled ye How ,,-clc . brown, tar. sa: 

mottles yellow .ferowr. sar.c 
wi snell fleckir.r 

tar. sane with crusr.ee shell 
oyster snell footing 
tabby floor 

loose concentrated coouina 
burnt sell, shell c.-.arccal 
concrete floor 

slack midden sell *i wncle snell 
earn brown scil »■:. rfhoie sne__ 
car/, brcwr.,rela sell wi shells 



VBASE of ramp footing 



CASA 

W. LATRINE- T.R 2 

EAST PROFILE 

DEAGAN 

110 METRIC 

30 CM 



JL^d 



tabby floor, roughly 10 cm. thick (top: 2.80 MMSL). This is the 
earliest floor level in the unit, suggested as a first Spanish 
period (and quite likely the very first grade level) surface in 
the courtyard. Ix is within 2 cm. of the elevation of Floor 3 
in the west laxrine. 

Above Floor 3 £ 15 cm. thick layer of soil was deposited, and 
excavated as Zones 3-5 (Fig. 28). No dateable material was present 
in this deposit, although it was capped by a very thick (20 cm.) 
layer of tabby, containing a sherd of annular ware (post-1795). 
This layer of tabby was designated Feature 18 (since it originally 
did not appear as a floor, having been intruded into by a modern 
pipetrench) . The top elevation of this surface was at 3*17 MMSL, 
and is believed to represent a post- 1795 re- flooring of that part 
of the courtyard, and raising of the grade. This floor is within 
14 cm. (6.3") of the Floor 2 elevation inside the latrines, and 
may have been constructed during the early years of the second 
Spanish period. This tabby pavement was also located by Harrington 
et al. at 3.16 MMSL (Harrington et al. 1956:117). 

The Feature 15 surface appears to have been poured in at 
least two, and possibly three layers. The uppermost layer appears 
as a fine-aggregate mortar cap, 4-5 cm. thick (Surface 1, Fig. 28). 
The lower, thicker layer is of crushed shell aggregate tabby, 
somewhat decomposed. Feature 18 was intruded upon by a pipetrench, 
which removed the entire north half of the floor in the test 
unit. A copper pipe and an iron pipe were encountered in the 
trench. No dateable artifacts were recovered from the pipe trench 
fill. It was, however, covered by a 15 cm. thick deposit (also 



covering Feature 18-see Fig. 28, Zones 1-2) containing plastic. 
This deposit (Zones 1-2), thus, are 20th century deposits, pre- 
dating the construction of the present courtyard surface (1952). 
It would appear from this sequence that Feature 18 represents the 
courtyard surface from a point in time just after 1790, until 
1952. 

The general stratigraphy in this unit thus indicates three 
grade levels in the courtyard: the first Spanish period tabby 
Floor 3 (2.80 MMSL); the 1790 Feature 18 (3.17 MMSL) and the con- 
temporary courtyard surface (3.34 MMSL). The dates for these grades 
are expected tc be refined with the correlation of this data with 
the historical data sections of the Castillo project. 

Most of the "areas" (soil discolorations) in the unit were 
the result of portions of the floors having been broken or decom- 
posed. -Exceptions '. to this, however, were Areas 1-3. These 
were all part of a large pit adjacent to the ramp/latrine wall, 
in the southwest corner of the test unit. It extended 50 cm. north 
from the wall and an unknown distance to the west. Areas 1 and 2 
were the upper, rubble-filled 15 cm. of the pit, while Area 3 was 
the lower 4-6 cm. The pit contained large amounts of red brick 
and coquina block rubble, although no dateable artifacts were pre- 
sent in it. The east edge of Area 3 was 1.1m. west, along the 
latrine wail, from the west edge of the west latrine doorway. 
It initiated ax 3.08 MMSL, intruded through Feature 18, and exten- 
ded to 2.27 MMSL, which was also the exact elevation of the ramp's 
footing base. 

This pit was apparently a construction pit excavated at some 



15^ 



time after the establishment of Feature 16 (post-1795), in order 
to effect repairs to the ramp wall. This is further supported hy 
the presence of alternating layers of cocuina rubble and grey 

ent extending in the ramp wall from the ton of the construction 
it to the base of the wall (Fig. 2 9 ) . The ramp is known to have 

been repaired in 1885 (Luis Arana, personal communication, St. 
Augustine 1980), and this repair is highly likely to have resulted 

in Areas 1-3, and the ramp wall configuration. It was also during 

this time that the circular hole discussed above was most likely 

to have been filled in. 



cem 
p 




FIGUKZ 29 



.ne (Courtyard Pit) , Test pit 
>outh Elevation 



.5^ 



time after the establishment of Feature 18 (post-1795), in order 
to effect repairs to the ramp wall. This is further supported "by 
the presence of alternating layers of coquina rubble and grey 
cement extending in the ramp wall from the top of the construction 
pit to the base of the wall (Fig. 2q ) . The ramp is known to have 
been repaired in 1865 (Luis Arana, personal communication, St. 
Augustine 1980), and this repair is highly likely to have resulted 
in Areas 1-3, and the ramp wall configuration. It was also during 
this time that the circular hole discussed above was most likely 
to have been filled in. 




3 IGUKE 29 

'ezz Latrine (Courtyard Pit) , 1e: 
oouih jLlevatior>. 






156 



FS- 



Table 21. Courtyard Pit (West Latrine, Test Pit 2) Pro- 
venience Guide 
(All elevations in meters above mean sea level) 



rrcvemence 



T 



OP 



Base 



TPj 



Cultural 
Association 



none 

none 

200 

203 
204 
205 

209 
210 
227 

229 



Zone 1 



Zone 2 

Feature 18, Lev- 
el 1 

Feature 18, 
Level 2 

Feature 18, 
Level 3 

Zone 3 



3.26 3-24 

3.24 3.21 

3-17 3.14 

3.K 3.04 

3.04 2.91 

2.91 2.82 



Modern rubble Contemporary court] 

bas e 

Plastic " 



Mortar, rubble 



Annular ware 

Bone button, 
Red brick 

Barrel tile 



Zone 4 2.82 2.79 

Zone 5 2.79 2.77 

Zone 6 (Floor 3) 2.74 2.54 



San Marcos 
Daub/mortar 



Tabby floor-Spanis) 

Courtvard surface 
(post-1790) 

Fill between Spanif 
and Spanish Ii cor" 
surfaces 

ii 

Disturbed aborigine 
midden 



Zone 7 



2.54 2.33 



Sand tempered 

plain aboriginal Base- aborigina* 
midden 



222 


Zone 


8, 


Level 


1 


2.48 


2.33 


^ t 


Johns 


pre-aboriginal midc 


228 


Zone 


8, 


Level 


: 


2.33 


1.80 


St. 


Johns 


n 


201 


Area 


1 






3.08 


2.93 


Red 


brick 


Area of deteriorat: 
within Feat. 18 flc 


202 


Area 


2 






3.08 


2.95 


Red 


brick 


n 


211 


Area 


- 


Level 


1 


2.93 


2.69 


Red 


brick 


Construction repai] 
trench, Dost-1763, 
1780 


217 


Area 


2 j 


Level 


2 


2 .69 


2.27 


Red 


brick 


tt 


216 


Area 


4 






2.89 


2.57 


St. 


Johns 


soil discoloration: 
Spanish II 


223 


Area 


5 






2.57 


2.38 


St. 


Johns 


Aboriginal 


N/A 


Courtyard Floor 


3.34 


3.28 




- 


Present surface 


212 


Floor 3 






2.80 


2.74 


Olive Jar 


Spanish I Courtyarc 
surface 



Table 22. 



._ j-^-2 — — -• 

Courtyard Pity Test Pit 2: Artifact Distribution 
(^-indicates presence) 



Artifact 
Description 



feature 1i 
Level 2 



Peature 1i 
Level 3 



Zone 3 



Zone 3 



Zone 6 



Zone 7 



CERAMICS 



Hispanic 






UID Majolica 






Olive Jar 






TOTAL 


- 




Other European 


1 




Annular ware 


1 . 000 


TOTAL 


1 


1 . 000 


Aboriginal 







St. Johns 

Plain 

St. Johns 
Stamped 

San Marcos 
Plain 

San Marcos 
Stamped 

UID Aborigina 

discards 

UID sand-tempered 
plain 

TOTAL 

total cmmcs 

NON-CERAMIC 
MATERIAL CULTURE' 



1 1.000 



Glass 
green 

Iron 

nail fragment 
lumps /flakes 

Lead 

musket ball 
flattened sho 

rrass tack 

One-hole bone 
button 

Red clay bead 
[Flint 



Kaolin pipe st 



13 

+ 

1 
1 



em 



2 

17 
13 



056 
056 



500 
056 



056 

II 1 

I I I 

111 

944 



10 
10 



200 
400 



100 



300 



,000 

ooo 



1-4 



1 1 . 000 



1.000 
1 .000 



i 

28 

10 
58 
56 



241 



103 
483 

ML 

999 



I 
4 



Table 22, com 'd. 



-. • 25 8" ■■ ' "*"" " " 

Courtyara Pit, Test Pit 2: Artifact Listri 

bution (+-indicates presence) 



<-*- -i f^ r> + 



Artifact 
Description 



Zone 8 
Level 1 



Zo.ne 8 
Level 2 



Area 



Area 2 



Area 3 

Level 1 



Area 3 
Level i 



CERAMICS 

Hispanic 

UID Majolica 

Olive Jar 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Annular ware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns 

Plain 1 .500 

St. Johns 

Stamped .5 

San Marcos 

Plain 

San Marcos 
Stamped 

UID sand-temr>£: 
plain 

UID AboriginafL 

discards 

2 

TOTAL CERAMICS 2 
NON-CERAMU 

MATERIAL CULTURE 



Glass 
green 

Iron 

nail fragment 
lumps /flakes 

Lead 

musket ball 
flattened shojt 

Erass tack 

Bone button 

Red clay bead 

Flint 

Kaolin pipestem 



.500 



400 



.600 



2 


.500 






4 


1 . 000 


10 


1 .000 


4 


1 . 000 


10 


1 .000 



3 .500 



1 .167 



1 . 167 



1 . 167 

6 1.001 
6 1.001 



Table 22, cont'd. 



15^ 



Courtyard Fix, Test Pit 2: Artifact 

Distribution (^-indicates presence) 



Artifact 
Description 



Area 5 



floor 3 



Area 4 



CERAMICS 
is oanic 
U1D Majolica 
Olive Jar 
TOTAL 
Other European 



Annular ware 
TOTAL 
Aboriginal 



Q + 



jonns 



Plain 

St. Johns 
Stamped 

San Marcos 

Plain 



1 1.000 



San Marcos 
Stamped 

UID sand-temfpered 
plain 

UIE Aboriginal 

discards 

TOTAL 1 

TOTAL CERAMICS 1 

NON-CERAMIC 

MA T ERI AL C ULTUfRE 



1 . 000 
1.000 



Glass 

green 
Iron 

nail fragmer.t 

lumns/flakes 



Lead 



musket ball 
flattened sljo 

Erass tack 

Bone button 

Red clay bead 

Flint 

Kaolin Tine sijem 



. 143 
.143 



.425 



3 .429 

6 .858 

7 1.001 



2 .335 

1 .167 

1 . 167 

2 .333 
6 1.000 
6 1 . 000 



16° 
Table 22, cont 'd. 



Artifact 
Description 



feaxure 18 
Level 2 



Feature 18 
Level 3 



Zone 3 



Zone 5 



Zone o 



Zone 7 



Construction 
Material 

coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plasxer 

daub 

slate 

brick 

barrel tile 






.-, r< n 



Table 22, cont'd 



Artifact 

DescriDtion 



Zone 8 
Level 1 



Zo-ne 8 
Level 2 



Area 1 



Area 2 



Area 3 
Level 1 



Area 3 
Level 2 



Construction 

Material 

coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

daub 

slate 

brick 

barrel tile 



162 
Table 22, cont ' d 



Artifact 
DescriDXion 



Area 5 



Construction 

Maxerial 

coquina 

tabby 

mortar 

plaster 

daub 

slate 

brick 

barrel tile 



.floor 3 



Area 4 



163 



Seminole Room .excavations (Room Number 4) 

The Seminole Room, located at the southern end of the 
western bank of casemates, is in that side of the fort which 
was the last to be completed (Arana and Mamie y 1977:27-26). 
In 1675> the west side of the Castillo was essentially open, 
but was protected by a twelve foot high earthwork with two 
half bastions. The earthwork was faced with stone, and fron- 
ted by a fourteen foot wide, ten foot deep moat (this configu- 
ration can be seen in Map 1 , Appendix i). By 1685, not only 
were the walls and bastions constructed, but the rooms on all 
sides, including the west, were completed (ibid: 39). At some 
time between 1740 and 1756, the west rooms were expanded east- 
ward into the courtyard; and the walls and roofs of the case- 
mates rebuilt and vaulted (Appendix 1, Map 6 ; after Arana 
and Manucy 1977:45). 

Little is known of the "Seminole Room"s function at that 
time, other than that it was used to store provisions (ibid: 
45; Arredondc 1737). During the first half of the 19th cen- 
tury the room was used briefly as a prison for Seminole War 
Indian prisoners, including Osceola. Alledgedly, it was from 
the Seminole Room that Osceola escaped by squeezing through 
the window high in the west wall. 

Today the room is floored in tabby and concrete, and 
contains a stone banquette along the room's west side. This 
platform is 1.2 meters high and 2 meters wide (east-west). 

Excavations were carried out in this room for several 
purposes, including: 



Ic- 



1. Observation of conditions of sub-grade walls and footings 
to determine necessity for stabilization, 

2. Determination of the sequence and numbers of floors in 
the room, 

3. Location of the pre- 1756 courtyard wall (i.e., the room's 
pre- 1756 east wall); and any other evidence for the "big change", 

4. Location of evidence for the pre- 1685 earthwork and moat 
configuration, 

5. Investigation of the stone platform in order to learn about 
its dates and functions, 

6. Recovery of information regarding room functions and 
uses . 

In order to approach these issues, two trenches were exca- 
vated in the Seminole Room. Trench 1 was located along the 
north wall in order to expose the platform base, to locate 
the earlier courtyard wall and to observe the room's north 
wall foundation. Trench 2 was placed along the north half 
of the room's east wall to observe that wall's footing, and 
the relationships between the rooms north and east wall foo- 
tings, as well as that between room 4 and room (Figure 30). 

Archeologicai Lata 
Fre-1685 Phase 

The earliest activity evident archeologically in the 
Seminole Room was the disturbance of the pre-Castillo abori- 
ginal village by the construction of the 1675 west earthwork 
and moat discussed above. Figure 31 shows the location of 
the 1675 earthwork as shown on the Salazar map (Appendix 1, 



165 



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167 



Map 1 ) ; in relation to both the present Seminole Room con- 
figuration, and the location of the excavation units. 

It can be seen that Test Trench 1 cuts across the indi- 
cated location of the moat's southernmost east-west jog. 
Test Pit 2 extends across the stone-faced inner corner of 
the southern half bastion, extending at its north end into 
tne edge of the moat. 

The archeological evidence suggests that the 167 5 Salazar 
map was quite accurate. The west profile of Test Trench 1 
shows an abrupt and deep discontinuity at precisely the loca- 
tion expected, if indeed the pit cut across the moat's east- 
west jog (Figure 32) . In this figure, "T" is dark midden 
soil containing whole shells, which was excavated as Zone 4, 
and which appears to have been a primary deposit. This was 
possibly the ground surface prior to the Castillo's construc- 
tion. The top elevation of this zone, at 2.87 MMS1, is only 
10 cm. higher than the top of the same zone in the latrine 
excavation units. Only aboriginal materials were recovered 
from this zone. 

The areas designated on Figure 32 as M, L and U are 
believed to have been the fill added to the area between 
1675 and 1685. Excavated respectively as Area 7, Zone 3 and 
Area 3, they contained no dateable material. Unlike Zone 4 (T), 
however, the presence of olive jar fragments, unglazed, 
wheel thrown coarse earthenwares, iron flakes and a chip of 
red brick or tile indicates that these deposits were made 
during the historic period. 



168 



_ TEST PIT I __ 
WEST PROFILE 



I5M.B.D. 



1 



BOTTOM OF BANQUETTE WALL 



Q (SURFACE 2 



U 

(AREA 3) 




FEA.20 
(N.WALL 
FOOTING) 



>- -ocerr. cuff i nunus 

i- jrrey-brown sand wi shell r.ecki.o- 
.- nee. brown sand wi shell fleckinr 
>- :arK brown sand wi shell fleckir.r 
.- Itr.ht drown sand wi shell flecKinc 

- -nee. orowr. sand wi v.-.oie snell 
j- ^iec. brown sane 

it lir.-.t brown sand 

- tar. sand 

- da.-K 



v-rrown sane 
rroid sterile sand 
mot-led yellov .rclc, 



'0'.>T..:ar. sane 



-mottled yellow .brown sand 

wi shell fieckir.c 
•tar, sane wit.-, crusnec snell 

• oyster snell footing 

■ taocy floor 

■ loose concentrated cocuina 

• curr.t soil, shell cnarcoal 

■ concrete fleer 

■ clac;: bidden sell wi wncle sr.ell 
ear/, crowr. soil wi wncie shell 
ear> crowr. , ~eic scil wi shells 



CASA 

STRAT RECORD 16 

SEMINOLE ROOM 

8-16-79 

DEAGAN 

SCALE i -10 METRIC 



BASE OF EXCAVATION 



10 



20 30 C M 



FIGURE 32 
• err.inole ^oom, Test Pit 1, .Jest Profile 



169 



\i' '*■ 






^P13Ei»IN0L£ flOOM 
l*ESTpponiX^ 




FIGURE 33 
oem: Room, Test :- it 1, .Jest Profile 



170' 



Zone 5 also appears to have been an undisturbed, abori- 
ginal, pre-moat deposit, and is actually the bottom part of 
Zone 4 itself. The bases of midden zones in St. Augustine 
generally assume a slight mottling with the gold sterile 
sand upon which they rest, and although they represent part 
of the behavioral process which resulted in the midden pro- 
per, they are excavated as seperate deposits to ensure tight 
vertical control. 

The only anomalous fact in this interpretation of Test 
Pit 1 stratigraphy is the indicated depth of the moat, which 
at this point is only about three feet (in contrast to the 
ten feet noted by Salazar). The location of the pit at the 
extreme edge of the old moat area may account for this ; since 
the moat was probably excavated in stages, or irregularly; 
which would have resulted in stepped, irregular edges on the 
interior of the moat itself. 

Test Pit 2 provides additional data concerning the moat. 
Figures 34 and 35 show the west profile of this unit, which 
reveals a concave layered stratification, such as would be 
expected from the infilling of a moat. The unit is apparently 
near the southern edge of the moat's north-south extent. 

The top of Zone 3 (Pig. 34, Layer "F") represents the 
post-filling level of the area in 1685 (3.27 MMSL) . This is 
within 4 cm. of the Test Pit 1 post moat-fill ground surface. 
Very little dateable material was recovered from the moat 
fill in this unit, other than a sherd of Ichtucknee Blue on 
White majolica (post-1600) in Zone 8. Excavation was sus- 



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172 




FIGURE 35 
nole Room, Test Pit 2, ..Jest Profile 

( JF ho zo board mi s 1 abl e d ) 



173 



spended at 1.75 MMSL, due to time constraints, as well as 
the fact that the base of the moat should have beer, located 
at roughly .15 MMSL, some 1.6 meters below the base of the 
excavation. The additional information that could have been 
gleaned from a total excavation of moat fill was not consi- 
dered worth the time and money expenditure, and also the 
potential damage to the fort itself. 

Post-1685 Phases 

The next construction stage evidenced in the Seminole 
Room is that of the pre-1756, post 1685 configuration. Fea- 
ture 21, located in Test Pit 1 (Fig. 30, 36-37), was the 
room's pre-1756 east wall. This wall is located at 5 meters 
west of the Seminole room's present east wall at 3.35 MMSL, 
and is 80 cm. thick. It extends for 1.11 meters at maximum 
depth. It is comprised of rough-coursed, mortared and irregu- 
lar coquina blocks. None of the blocks on the west side of 
the feature are plastered, suggesting that the portion of 
Feature 21 revealed in Test Trench 1 was below grade during 
its use (the east face was not fully revealed during excava- 
tion). Only about 10 cm. of the top of the feature could 
have been above grade at the time of moat filling, repre- 
sented by the top of Area 3 (Fig. 32, "U " ) , at 3.23 MMSL. 

Areas 4, 5 and 6 in Teet Pit 1 (see Table 23) were irregu- 
lar areas of discolored and rubble containing soil adjacent 
to the west side of Feature 21. These areas, ranging from 
a maximum top elevation of 3-15 MMSL to a maximum base eleva- 
tion of 1.80 MMSL are also believed tc be related to the con- 



174 




FIGURE 36 



bemmole r.ccr. 



Features 20 and 21 



175 



TEST PIT I 
EAST WALL 



.26M.B.D 




FEATURE 
21 

COQUINA 



•MORTAR 



CASA 

ELEVATION 8 

SEMINOLE ROOM 

8-16-79 

DEAGAN 

SCALE HOMETRIC 

C 10 20 ~~ 30CM 



rURZ 37 

Seminole Room, 'rest pit 1, Feature 21 '.vest face 



176 



struction activities of the 1756 period, although their pre- 
cise functions could not be determined. Only cocuina and 
mortar rubble fragments and one piece of aboriginal pottery 
were in the fill of those areas. They were possibly a con- 
struction trench for Feature 21. 

To the west of Feature 21 only a single sub-grade floor 
was present in the trench. This was Surface 2, a 7 cm. 
thick layer of compacted, crushed cocuina and mortar. This 
surface was present only to the west of Feature 21; however 
its juxtaposition to the west side of Feature 21 was broken 
and irregular, and the surface itself was deteriorated. For 
that reason, it is difficult to determine with absolute cer- 
tainty whether the Surface 2 to the west of Feature 21 was 
poured up to it, or over the top of it. Elevation data indi- 
cates that the floor post-dates the wall remnant (the base 
of Surface 2 and the top of Feature 21 are both at 5-35 
MMSL) ; and the presence of a surface 2 similar to the one in 
question, to the east of the feature (in both test pits) 
supports this indication. 

The preliminary conclusion is that Surface 2 represents 
the 1756 renovation floor, both to the east and to the west 
of Feature 21. Although the Surface 2 to the west of Feature 
21 is 11 cm. higher than that in Test Pit 2, this difference 
is less than that between the east and west ends of the room 
at the present grade (16 cm.). Apparently the pre-renovation 
floor of the room was eliminated during that renovation, or 
the floor was of wood or earth and not detected archeologi- 



177 

cally. The only remaining (and doubtful) alternative is that 
Surface 2 west of Feature 21 is actually the pre-1756 floor, 
which remained in situ and in use. 

This was not the case for the pre- 1756 courtyard floor 
in this area. In both Test Pit 1 (to the east of Feature 21) 
and Test Pit 2, remnants of that surface are present. Figures 
33 and 34 show these remnant surfaces in profile, directly 
underlying Surface 2. These were designated Floors 3 and 4 
during excavation, however, in profile it became apparent 
that they were broken and deteriorated layers of the same 
surface. The elevations of these floors in Trench 2 were 
from 3.21 to 3.13 M.MSL. This very closely approximates the 
elevations of a similarly broken and deteriorated surface in 
Test Pit 1 (east of Feature 21) designated as Surface 3 
(3.21 to 3.12 MMSL). No dateable material was recovered 
from the zones beneath the Surface 3 deposits in either unit; 
however a sherd of Puebla Blue on White majolica was found 
in the broken section of the Test Pit 1 portion, indicating 
that it was broken and covered after 1700. This courtyard 
surface was probably broken and filled over at approximately 
the same time that the Feature 21 wall was torn down, the 
present east wall of the room built; and the room's north 
wall was rebuilt . 

The rebuilding of the north wall of the room is evi- 
denced by Feature 20, a coquina and mortar ledge extending 
for .20 meters out (to the south) of the present north wall 
(Fig. 36). The top of this ledge is at 3-38 MMSL (4 cm. 



178 




FIGURE 38 



Seninole Room, Feature 20 (Lerire along rocr.'s 
north wall) 



179 



below the top of Surface 2, the post-1756 room floor; and 
3 cm. above the top of Feature 21, the pre-1756 courtyard 
wall). It extended downward to a depth below the base of the 
excavation, and along the entire north wall of the room 
from the banquette to the present east wall. Although, as 
Figure 36 reveals, the juncture of Feature 21 to Feature 20 
is even and not broken; other evidence indicates more strongly 
that Feature 20 is the spread footing of the room's present 
north wall, and was built in the 1756 renovation. Two pieces 
of evidence suggest that this is the case, rather than that 
Feature 20 represents the actual pre- 1756 renovation wall 
next to which and upon which the post- 17 56 wall was built. 
The first of these is the presence of the Feature 20 ledge on 
both sides of Feature 21 (the pre-1756 courtyard wall) at the 
same elevation and same size. The second piece of evidence 
is that blocks of cocuina with a finished, plastered surface 
(Fig. 38) are part of the wall construction all the way to 
the base of the excavation. This is true of both the east 
and west ends of the wall, indicating that the wall was con- 
structed of previously used interior wall blocks with a 
finished surface. These could have been taken from either 
the pre-1756 courtyard wall, or the pre-1756 room's north wall; 
however neither source could have appeared at a depth of 
1 .88 MMSL unless they had been placed there after these walls 
were removed. This is not an unreasonable interpretation in 
the light cf the role of the post-1756 casement wails as com- 
pared to that of the pre-1756 walls. The post-renovation 



180 



north and south casement walls had to support massive, 
arched-roof bombproofs and a thick gundeck, and it is un- 
likely that the foundations for the pre- 1756 casement walls 
(which supported a raftered roof) would have been appropriate. 
It is quite likely, however, that the foundation for the 
pre- 17 56 casement wall was removed and reused; and was 
probably in the same location as Feature 20 (see Map °, 
Appendix 1 :Arana and Manucy 1977:45). 

Post-1756 Renovation Activities 

At some time following the 1756 renovation, the banquette 
in the west end of the room was added. It is suggested that 
the banquette is a first Spanish period, post- 1756 feature, 
based on the facts that: 

1. The banquette rests directly upon Surface 2, which extends 
underneath it (rather than being poured up to it). 

2. Zone 1, which overlies Surface 2 in all other parts of 
the excavation units, is not present between the banquette 
and Surface 2. This zone has a TPQ of 1785, provided by 

a sherd of early hand painted pearlware (Table 23) • 

3. Traces of finish plaster are evident upon the face of the 
banquette down to the surface of Surface 2, suggesting that 
it was in use for at least part of the time that Surface 2 
was in use. 

During what was probably the second Spanish period (or 
later), the layer of earth designated as Zone 1 was placed on 
Surface 2, and Floor 1 (the present room floor) was poured. 
This date is based on the presence of hand painted pearlware 



181 



(r>ost 1785) in the £one 1 fill of Test Pit 2. Floor 1 is 
of a very compact, fine shell aggregate tabby concrexe, with 
a hard finish surface. In places this floor is patched with 
grey concrete. The sealed doorway, centered over Feature 21 
in the room's north wail, was constructed, used and filled 
in during the lifespan of Floor 1 (maximum: second Spanish 
period to present) . 

The east wall of the room has a somewhat puzzling sub- 
grade configuration. The sub grade portion of the wall 
(evidenced by the absence of plastered surface) began at 
approximately 3.14 MMSL (the base of Surface 2). The origi- 
nal doorway was at the level of the top of Surface 2 (ca. 
3.25 MMSL). It was in the same position as the present door- 
way; however, it was only about 1 meter wide. The north side 
of xhe door was at 25 cm. south of the present north wall 
of the room, while the south side of the original door was 
at 1.25 meters south of the present north wall of the room 
(on either side of these points, there is coquina masonry 
up to the base of the present door sill, while between those 
points, there is no masonry between the old door sill (3.25 
MMSL) and the present door sill (3.34 MMSL). (Fig. 39) 

The juncture of the sub-grade north wall of the Seminole 
Room with the sub-grade east (courtyard) wall is not even. 
Between the two sub-grade wall portions is a 30 cm. wide, 
straight-sided recess, 28 cm. deep (Fig.39). This extended 
to the base of the excavation. This recess appears to be 
the outer (e.ast) course of the courtyard wall, without the 



182 




FIGURE 



err.incls ..oo::., Test Pit 2, _^ast Fro: 
(Photo board rriislabled) 



183 



inner course (the remainder of the room's east wall has an 
additional inner course, 28-30 cm. thick). Clearly, the north 
and east walls of the room were not constructed at the same 
time, and when the second of the two was built, did not 
meet the already standing wall (or footing). The 30 cm. wide, 
single-course recess may have been added to fill in below- 
grade (this would have been under the north edge of the door 
opening). It is possible that the present east wail of the 
Seminole Room was already in place when the renovation work 
began on the west bank of rooms, since that wail is also the 
western wall of the south bank of rooms. If this was the 
case, the recess seen at the north end of the room's east 
wall could have been the result of in-filling after the 
north wall was built. 

Seminole Room Excavations Summary 



Evidence for four activity stages was recovered archeo- 
logically in the Seminole Room. It should be noted that 
additional insight into the nature of this evidence may be 
gained when the historic data sections are available. Test 
Pit 1 was located along the edge of the 1675 moat (at its 
southern east-west jog:Figure 31), while Test Pit 2 was loca- 
ted near the south end of the moat's north-south extent. 
The moat was filled at some time after 1675, to an elevation 
of circa 3.12 MMSL. At this time, Feature 21, the pre-1756 
courtyard wall was constructed and, to the west of this, 
a courtyard surface of tabby and crushed coquina was present 
at approximately 3.21 MMSL. No floor was evident to the east 



181 



of Feature 21 . 

At some time near the end of the renovation period of 
1738-1756, the room was expanded to ixs present configuration, 
The Feature 21 wall was removed, and the old north wall of 
xhe room probably was also removed at that time and rebuilt 
with a spread footing (Feature 20) . The entire room was 
floored with a crushed cocuina aggregate tabby (Surface 2), 
and at some time between 1756 and the second Spanish period, 
the banquette at the west end of the room was added. During 
the second Spanish period or later, a thin layer of earth 
was added (Zone 1) and xhe present floor was established, 
and subsequently patched through its existence. 

All of the goals of this portion of xhe excavation 
were met, except for those of learning aboux the functions 
of the banquexte and the room itself. Excavation inside 
the banquette itself will be necessary to achieve the former 
goal, and the limited nature of construction and flooring 
in the room supports xhe suggesXion XhaX iX was used primari- 
ly for storage. 



185 



Table 23. Seminole Room Provenience Guide 
(All elevations in meters above mean sea level) 



Test Pit 1 

FS# Provenience 



Ton Bas e 



TPC 



Cultural 
Association 



Nw-3.50 SB-3-3S 



214 
226 
253 

233 
26C 

233 

256 
258 
262 

263 
266 
265 
27 'i 
272 



Top of ground 
Zone 1 

Zone 2 (west of 
Feature 21) 

Zone 2 (east of 
Feature 21) 

Zone 3, Level 1 
(west of Fea. 21) 

Zone 5, Level 1 
(east of Fea. 21) 

Zone 3, Level 2 

Zone 3, Level 3 

Zone 3, Level 4 
(west of Fea. 21) 

Zone 4, Level 1 
(west of Fea. 21) 

Zone 4, Level 2 
(west of Fea. 21) 

Zone 4, Level 3 
(west of Fea. 21) 

Zone 4 (east of 
Feature 21) 

Zone 4, Level 4 



Zone 4, Level 5 2.27 2.12 San Marcos 



> 


.43 


3-32 


Musket butt 
plate 




post-1785 


3 




3.17 


Tabby 




1685-1756 


•2 

2 


.32 


3.17 


Barrel tile 




1685-1756 


3 


.17 


2.87 


St. Johns 




1685-1756 


3 


.17 


2.87 


Olive Jar 




Moat Fill 
(backdirx) 


2 


.87 


2.71 


Plain aboriginal 


Moat Pill 


2 


.71 


2.56 


Unglazed Europea 


□ 








Coarse Earthenware Moat Fill 


2 


.56 


2.35 


San Marcos 




Moat Fill 


2 


.87 


2.72 


Plain aborig: 


mal 


pre-Castillo 


2 


.72 


2.52 


St. Johns 




pre-Castillo 
midden 


2 


.52 


2.40 


St. Johns 




pre-Castillo 
midden 




.07 


3.04 


San Marcos 




pre-Castillo 
midden 


2 


.40 


2.27 


San Marcos 




pre-Castillo 



miccen 

pre-Castillo 
midden 



z.one 5 



2.12 2.06 



St. Johns 



no 

artifact Zone 6 

213 Feature 19 
Feature 20 

Feature 21 



2.05 1.85 
3.43 3-36 



3.38 - 



2.12-S 
3.33 2.31-K 



Moat Fill 

Lead glazed 

coarse earthenware Post-Spanish 

1756 Seminole R 

Casement, North 
footing 

1756 Courtyard 
wall 



186 



Table 23> cont'd. Seminole Room Provenience Guide 



FS# 



Provenience 



Tod .base 



TF„ 



Cultural 
Association 



none 



none 



220 



Floor 1 (West of 
Feature 21) 

Floor 1 (Last of 
Feature 21) 



215 


Surface 


2 


246 


Surface 2 (East 
of Feature 21) 


25^ 


Surface 

of Feati 


3 (East 
ire 21) 


221 


Area 


1 




224 


Area 


2 




225 


Area 


•2. 

- 




231 


Area 


4 




230 


Area 


5 




245 


Area 


6 




240 


Area 


7, 


Level 1 


275 


Area 


7, 


Level 2 


none 


Area 


9 




219 


m 1 







PM 2 



-est fit 2 



232 



237 



Top of ground 
Zone 1 

Zone 2 



no artifacts Zone 3 
no artifacts Zone 4 
244 Zone 5 



248 
2^9 



Zone 6, Level 1 
Zone 6, Level 2 



3.50 3.43 



3.41 3-37 

3.42 3.35 



3.37 3.27 



3.32 3.24 
3.24 3.21 
3.23 2.93 



.1 



J c 



.99 



2.99 2.80 

2.92 1.80 

3.06 2.69 
2.69 1.95 

1.85 1.67 

3.28 3.10 

3.29 3.14 



E-3.37 W-3.34 
3.32 3.31 

3.26 3.21 

3.19 3.16 

3.14 3.12 
S-3.20 S-3-17 
N-3.27 K-3.00 

3.00 2.86 
2.86 2.72 



Spanish II to i 

Spanish II to 
present 

post-1756 flooi 

Floor sample 

no artifacts post-1756 floor 

Puebla B/W pre- 17 56 courty 
surface 



Floor sample 
no artifacts 



majolica 
San Marcos 
cocuina 
San Marcos 
St. Johns 

Tabby frag. 

I abby frag . 

iron 

Red brick 
fragment 

mortar 
mortar 



Break in Surfac 
Moat Fill post- 
Moat Fill 

Feature 21 wall 
struction, ca. 

Feature 21 wall 
struction, ca. 

Feature 21 wall 
sXrucxion, ca. 

Moat Fill 
Moax Fill 



1756 north wail 
consXrucXion 

1756 north wall 
construction 



Early painted 
pearlware post- 1785 

San Luis B/W 

majolica post-1756 

1685-1756 

1685-1756 



Olive Jar 
Iron nail 
San Marcos 



Moat Fill, post- 
Moat Fill 
Moat Fill 



187 



■p 



Table 23, cont'd. Seminole Room Provenience Guide 

Ton Ease 



Cultural 



rovenience 



TP^ 


Assoc 


:iati( 


St. Johns 


Moat 


Pill 


St. Johns 


Moat 


Fill 


San Marcos 


Moat 


Fill 


'Wakulla check 






stamped 


Moat 


Fill 


Clive Jar 


Moat 


Fill 


- 


Moat 


Fill 


mortar 


Moat 


Pill 


- 


Moat 


Pill 


Plain abori- 






ginal 


Meat 


Pill 


San Marcos 


Moat 


Fill 



250 
251 
2 52 
255 



Zone 6, Level 3 
south half 

Zone 6, Level 3 
north half 

Zone 6, Level 4 
south half 

Zone 6, Level 4 
north half 



257 Zone 6, Level 5 
none Zone 7, Level 1 

267 Zone 7, Level 2 

no artifacts Zone 7, Level 3 

268 Zone 7, Level 4 



269 
270 



Zone S, north half 
Zone 6, south half 



no artifacts Floor 1 



23 c 



Surface 2 
no artifacts Floor 3 



23B 



.r'loor 4 



2.72 2.57 

2.72 2.57 

2.57 2.42 

2.57 2.42 
2.39 2.26 
2.71 2.38 
2.38 2.23 
2.23 2.05 
2.05 1.90 

1.90 1.75 
1.9C 1.75 



3.34 3.32 



N-3.H 
3.31 S-3.26 

3.21 3.19 



3.16 3.13 



Ichtucknee 
5/W majolica 



Olive Jar 



San Marcos 



(*Feature 22, Levels 1 and 2, 

259 Feature 22, Level 3 
north half 



excavated as Zone 6, Levels 3 



Moat Pill 

Spanish II to 
present 

post-1756 flooi 

pre- 1756 court- 
yard surface 

pre-1756 court- 
yard surface 

and 4) 



2.42 2.27 San Marcos Moat Pill 



261 
264 



Feature 22, Level 4 
south half 

Feature 22, Level 4 
north half 



no artifacts feature 22, 
Level 5 



2 .27 2.12 



2.27 2.12 



2.12 1.86 



Olive Jar Moat Pill 



Olive Jar 



Moat Pill 



Moat Pill 



Table 24. Seminole Room, Tefct Pit 1: Artifact Distribution 
(+-indicates presence) 



Artifact Description 

CERAMICS 

Hispanic 



Olive Jar, unglazed 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Lead-glazed coarse 
earthenware 

unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

UID sand-tempered 

UID sherd-tempered 

UID sand & sherd- 
tempered 

UID shell-tempered 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON- CERAMIC MATERIAL 
CULTURE 

Glass 

clear 
Iron 

nails, whole 

nail fragments 

f lakes /lumps /fragments + 
Bone Handle fragment 
Tar 
Construction Material 



Feature 19 



PPM 1 



tabby 

coquina 

plaster 
mortar 



PPM 2 



Area 1 



500 



50C 



333 



167 



Area 2 



Are 



.50C 
1 . OOC 



1 .000 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 



7 1 
7 1 



'able 24, cont'd. Seminole^Room , Test Pit 1: Artii'acx Distri- 
bution (+-indicaxes presence) 



.ArJtif .ac-t-JDfiF crip: 
JERAMICS 



hisran 



Olive Jar, ungiaze 
TOTAL 



;ne: 



Euro re an 



Lead-glazed coarse 
earthenware 

Unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

Sx. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

UID sand-xempered 

UID sherd-xempered 

UID sand & sherd- 
tempered 

UID shell-tempered 

discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 
JULTURE 

Glass 
clear 

Iron 

whole nail 
nail fragmenxs 

j flakes/lumps/fragm 

Bene handle fragment 

Tar 

(Dabby 

coquina 

lolaster 



Zone 2 



.143 



.429 
.429 



7 1.001 
7 1.001 



ents 



Area ^ 



• 333 



2 .667 

3 1.000 
3 1.000 



Zone 3 

Level 1 * 



c 
B 



.375 



125 



375 



125 



1 .000 
1 .000 



Zone 3 

Level 2 



1 1.000 



1 1.000 
1 1.000 



Area 7 
Level 



333 



333 



s S S 



999 



QQO 

*> j j 



Lxez i 



- 



190 

Table 24, cont'd. Seminole Room, Test Pit 1: Artifact Distri- 
bution (+-indicates presence) 



Zone 3 
Level 3 



_ Artifact De scription 

CERAMICS 

Kisoanic 

Olive Jar, unglazec. 

TOTAL 

Other European 

Lead-glazed coarse 
earthenware 

Unglazed coarse 
earthenware 

TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

UID sand-tempered 

UID sherd-tempered 

UID sand & sherd- 
tempered 

UID shell-tempered 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 
CULTURE 

Glass 

clear 
Iron 

whole nail 

nail fragment 

flakes /lumps /fragments 

Bone handle fragment 

Tar 

tabby 
coquina 

plaster 
mortar 



1 . 000 
1 .000 



Zone 3 
Level 4 



Zone 4 
Level 



Zone 3 
Level 1 
extension 



Zone 4 
Level 3 



1 1.000 



4 
6 
8 



125 

250 
125 



.500 

1.000 
1 . 000 



: 
2 



.333 
.333 



.333 



• 999 
.999 



2 

9 

•i0 



100 
100 



.100 

.200 
.400 



.200 

.900 
1.000 



7 
7 



.714 



. 143 

.143 

1 .000 
•i .000 



191 
Table 24, cont'd. Seminole Room, Test Pit 1: Artifact jJistri' 

bution (+-indicates presence) 





Zone L 




Area 7 








Level 5 

w es x ■% 
Artifact Description 


Zone 5 


Level 2 








CERAMICS 














Hispanic 


i 












Olive Jar, unglaze 




TOTAI 


- 


- 


- 








Other European 














Lead-glazed coarse 














earthenware 














unglazed coarse 














earthenware 














TOTAL 


- 


- 


- 




.- 




Aboriginal 














St. Johns Plain 


5 .833 


1 1.000 


2 .500 








St. Johns Stamped 






2 .500 






* 


San Marcos Plain 














San Marcos Stamped 


1 .167 












UID sand-tempered 














UID sherd-tempered 














UID sand & sherd 














tempered 














UID shell-tempered 














TOTAL 


6 1.000 


1 1 . 000 


4 1.000 








TOTAL CERAMICS 


6 1.000 


1 1.000 


4 1.000 








NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 














CULTURE 














Glass 














clear 




Iron 














whole nail 














nail fragment 






1 








flakes /lumps /fragm 


ents 












Bone handle fragment 














Tar 














Construction Materia 














tat 






coqulna 


+ 


-r 


■+ 








mortar 






+ 









192 
Table 25. Seminole Room, Test Pit 2: Artifact Distribution 
(+-indicates presence) 



_Axt.i la c_t_ Deac ri_ pt i_o n_ 

CERAMICS 

Hispanic 

Ichtucknee Blue on 
White 

Olive Jar,tmglaz.ed 

Olive Jar, glazed 
TOTAL 

Other European 
Redware 
..TOTAL 

Aboriginal 

St. Johns Plain 

St. Johns Stamped 

San Marcos Plain 

San Marcos Stamped 

Wakulla Check- 
Stamped 

Sarasota Incised 

UID sand-tempered 

UID grit-tempered 

UID sherd-tempered 

discards 

TOTAL 

TOTAL CERAMICS 

NON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 

CULTURE 

Iron 

nail fragment 

fragment 

lump 
Construction Material 



Zone 5 
Level 1 



tabby 

coquina 
mortar 

daub 
brick 



.063 



.063 



250 
186 
063 
125 



.06' 



4 


.250 




15 


.938 


21 


16 


1.000 


21 



Zone 6 
Level 1 



Zone 6 
Level 2 



Zone 6 
Level 



6 
i 



.381 

.286 

.143 



.191 



1 .001 
1 .001 



.077 



.077 



.385 
.308 

.154 



1 .077 

12 .923 

13 1.001 



1 

14 
14 



Zone 6 

Level 4 



.286 
.214 

.14 
.143 



.143 



.07 
1 .00 
1 .00 



10 
10 



667 

333 
,111 



1 .ooc 
1 .ooc 



3 



193 
Table 25, cont'd. Seminole Room, Test Pit 2: Artifact. 

Distribution (-*■- indicates presence, 



Artif act Distribution 



.'ERAMICS 
rlis -panic 

Ichtucknee Elue on 

White 

Olive Jar,ungiazed 
Olive Jar, glazed 
TOT AX 
Other European 
Redvare 
101 Al 
Aboriginal 



i:: 



St. Johns Plain 
St. Johns Stamped 
San Marcos Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 
Wakulla Check-Stampejd 
Sarasota Incised 
UID sand-tempered 
UID grit-tempered 
UID sherd-tempered 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



Feat . 22 

Level 3 
north i 



286 
286 

,429 



SON-CERAMIC MATERIAL 
CULTURE 



f- 



nail fragment 
| fragment 
* lump 
Construction Material 



tabby 
coquina 
mortar 
daub 

brick 



1 .001 
1.001 



Feat. 22 
Level 4 



1.67 

167 

533 
333 

167 
,167 
.167 



.500 

1 .001 



Eeat . 22 
Level 5 
nortn t 



7 
6 



20 
21 



.048 

.048 



p: 

Zone 7 
Level 1 



.333 

.286 

.14 

.093 



.093 






1.000 " 



Zone 7 

Level 4 



Zone 
Level 



■z-z-z 

• > > j 
.333 

.333 



.999 
.999 



3 

L 1 . 



Table 25, 



cont'd. Seminole Room, Test Fit 2: Artifact Distri. 
bution (+- indicates presence) 



Artifact Distribution 



Area 



Area 2 
Level 1 



CERAMICS 
R-isnanic 



Ichtucknee Eiue on White 
Olive Jar,unglazed 
Olive Jar, glazed 
TOTAL 
Other European 
Redware 
TOTAL 
A-boriginal 



St. Johns Flair. 
St. Johns Stamped 
San Hare os Plain 
San Marcos Stamped 
Wakulla Check-Stampec 
Sarasota Incised 
UID sand-tempered 
UID grit-tempered 
UID sherd-tempered 
discards 

TOTAL 
TOTAL CERAMICS 



ION-CERAMIC MaTjlRIAL 

' ULTU RE 

ron 



1 1.000 



1.000 
1.000 



nail fragment 
fragment 

lump 

onstructior. Material 
tabby 
coquina 
mortar 
daub 
brick 



4 



195 



Nummary 

_he Castillo de San Marcos archeological project was intended 
to meet the needs of four problem areas; those of stabilization; 
the historic structures report; management and interpretation; 
and anthropological archeology. Tne needs of stabilization inclu- 
ded information about tne nature and condition of various wall 
footings, foundation conditions and configurations, moisture levels 
of sub-surface features and deposits, and tne impact of ravelin 
stabilization upon possible sub-surface features c 

historic structure report needs included a delineation of 
the number, elevations, and locations of floors in various parts 
of the Castillo; the location of the pre-173& floor plan and 
courtyard wall; historic positions of various doorways and par- 
tition walls, and the location of interior features such as wells, 
privies and built-in furniture. 

Management and interpretive needs required information 
about room functions; the dates and functions of built-in furni- 
ture; information about daily activities carried out in the Fort, 
the diet of the soldiers and examples of material culture assem- 
blages typical of the various periods of fort occupancy. 

Concerns of anthropological archeology could also be investi- 
gated through tne excavations at the Castillo, althougn tne funding 
of the work was specifically for archeology in support of stabili- 
zation impact,. It has been a guiding premise of the project that 
with little or no additional expense to tne funding agency (in 
this case, the National Park Service) and witn careful planning, 



196 



the excavations can be designed, carried out and analyzed in a 
manner appropriate to anthropological investigation (see preface). 
Areas of such anthropological investigation at the Castillo inclu- 
ded a delineation of the nature and degree of difference or simi- 
larity between archeoiogical patterning at the Castillo with that 
at non-hispanic military forts of the period; and also with hispanic 
domestic sites of the period. This could be of considerable interest 
to our understanding of the relative roles of site function and 
cultural affiliation in determining archeoiogical patterns. The 
Castillo was also expected to provide a guage of "hispanic-ness" 
within St. Augustine, since the domestic sites in the town are 
known to have been culturally heterogeneous and subject to con- 
siderable Indian acculturation. Cnanges in the patterns of occu- 
pation and fori use from Spanish to British occupation were also 
expected to be revealed at the Castillo. 

The stabilization, historic structure, and management needs 
are addressed in this report, while those of anthropological 
interest may be found in Williams (n.d.). 

In all areas, the sub-grade conditions both inside and outside 
the fort were found to be stable and not seriously deteriorated. 
Specific information about masonry conditions, deterioration dnd 
suggested courses of action should be found in the architectural 
report c Moisture samples were taken and processed from each 
excavation unit, and the results of these tests can be found in 
Appendix 2 e Illustrations and discussion of specific sub-grade 
walls and features may be found in the appropriate section in 
this reports A summary of the historic structure and management 



197 



data will follow, organized by the areas excavated. It snould be 
noted that the archeclogical investigation, analyses and inter- 
pretations were carried out prior to the completion of the 
historical data section, and thus some conclusions may be altered 
or refined when that is available. 
ooutr. Covered Wa 

Information about the construction of the south covered way; 
its wall, and the construction of the counterscarp and glacis were 
recovered here, in addition to a determination of the floodlight 
conduit conditions and the wall's sub-grade conditions. 

At about 2.80 MMSL, an aboriginal midden layer was located 
in the south covered way. This was present at that elevation 
throughout the entire Castillo, and represents a pre-Castillo com- 
ponent. It is entirely prehistoric (Vernon 1979). The first 
historic activity in the area was the filling of the south covered 
way in the late 17th century. Approximately 55 cm. of earth were 
placed in the area, and tne south covered way wall and tne counter- 
scarp wall were constructed. At that time, tne covered way wall was 
one meter below its present height, and the counterscarp wall was 
1.8 meters below its present height. 

In 17 62 (Arana and Manucy 1977) another meter of fill was 
added to the south covered way; the covered way wall and counter- 
scarp wall were brought to their present height; and the glacis 
was filled to its approximate present configuration. All of the 
deposits dating to the colonial period are secondary fill. (The 
aboriginal midden, however, does not appear to have been relocated). 
The contents of this fill are statistically very similar to the 



198 



assemblage of e&rly historic period aboriginal assemblages in 
the vicinity, suggesting xhax a nearby historic period aboriginal 
village may have been xne source of Xne souxh covered way fill 
(Vernon 1979). 

The final arcneologically documenxed activity in xhe south 
covered way was xne presence and burning of a wooden strucxure 
during xne second half of tne 19th century. This is believed xo 
have been xhe house of Sergeanx Brown, known xo have been presenX 
near the excavation locaxion. 
Ravel 1 

Excavations in xhe ravelin revealed tne condixions of sub- 
grade walls, xhe location and conf iguraxion of the original entry 
sxairs, information about xhe powder magazine built tnere in xhe 
First Spanish Period; and xne subsequent demise of that structure. 

Excavation on xne wesX side of xhe entrance stairs to the 
ravelin locaxed Xne earlier wall base and the top sxep of the 
colonial period entrance, This was a mirror image configuration 
xo that presenx today on the east side of the stairs. The top step 
and the wall base were present at 6 cm. below tne 1979 excavation 
grade (3.97 MMSL). Adjacent to this wall base, clean white beach 
sand fill (apparently xhe original ravelin fill) appeared at 3. 38 
MMSL (65 cm. below Xhe 1979 grade). The presenx wall conf igura- 
xion in xne wesx secxion of the ravelin was apparenXly established 
during xhe Second Spanish Period, when considerable oxner renova- 
tion activity took place in the area. 

The change in the stair and wall conf iguraxion was associated 
with the rebuilding of the easx wall of tne wesx porXion of Xhe 



199 



ravelin (the wall between tne ravelin and the drawbridge ' xo ~ ne 
west of the present entrance). That wall served as the east wall 
of the powder magazine, built in tne ravelin during the First 
Spanish Period. The powder magazine's north wall was tne present 
north wall of the ravelin's west section. The south wall of the 
powder magazine was located at 3.5 meters south of that north wall, 
and was one meter thick. Tne roof of the magazine was vaulted, 
with the vault supported by a wooden sub-structure. A post mold 
cut into tne south powder magazine wall appears to have been 
associated with the vault support at tne south end of tne magazine; 
and tne inner cordon or ledge of the north wall appears to have 
served as the north vault substructure support (the cordon and 
postmold are at the same elevation). The powder magazine floor 
was of tabby resting on sterile white beach sand at 1 . 30 meters 
below the juncture of the south wall's top and the roof vault. 
Resting directly upon the floor was a layer of burnt organic 
material and artifacts, apparently representing tne collapse and 
burning of the wooden vault substructure. This event occurred 
(based on artifact TP^s) during the British period of occupation. 
it is likely that the east wall of trie magazine also collapsed 
at that time, down to a level wnich was 45 cm. above the magazine 
floor (above this level the wall is composed of irregular blocks, 
rubble and dirt-filled voids). After the collapse of tne vault 
and east wall during the British Period, 45 cm. of fill were 
placed in the magazine up to tne top 'of' the remaining east wall. 
The wall was then poorly rebuilt, and the fill brought up to the 
1379 grade, during tne second Spanish Period. The stairway con- 



200 



figuration was changed at that xime also. 

Subsequent to tne Second Spanish Period, considerable settling 
of tne earth fill in the powder magazine occurred, causing serious 
slope problems to tne north end of the magazine, with impact to 
the north wall through water drainage. At the time of this report, 
a large amount of fill and sod nave been added to the ravelin area, 
alleviating that problem. 

Tne deposits from tne ravelin excavations, although secondary, 
were among the most interesting at the Castiiloe The area apparently 
served as either a convenient trash repository during both the 
British and Second Spanish Periods; or a nearby trash deposit 
contemporary with the filling events was used to fill the magazine . 
The archeologically derived dates for the deposits are so close 
to the documentarily known activities in the area, that it appears 
probable that tne deposits are the result of British and Second 
Spanish Period activity associated with the Castillo. Unfortunately, 
more specific identification of the deposits is not possible. 
The Water Batterv 

The water battery on the east side of the Castillo was investi- 
gated to learn about the sub-grade foundation conditions and con- 
figuration of the east curtain; the sub-grade conditions of the 
shot furnace; evidence for activities believed to have taken place 
in the area after the moat wa.s filled; and information about the 
sub-grade conditions of tne seawall on the fort's east side. The 
first two objectives were met; and the latter two - through absence 
of expected evidence in the excavation units for the former; and 
time dnd water logistical problems in the latter - were not. 



201 



Three grade surfaces were located in the Water battery. The 
earliest w G s the First Spanish Period moat surface, a 30 cm. thick la> 
yer of black, artifact bearing muck. All materials dated exclu- 
sively within the First Spanish Period. Above this was a 65 cm. 
deposit dating to post- 1790 and representing the filling- in of the 
moat in 18^. This grade was maintained until the 20th century 
Park Service period, when 30 more centimeters of fill and sod were 
added c No evidence for such suspected activity in the area as 
stables was present in tne excavation unit. 

The east scarp itself rests upon two stepped, coquina ledges 
(or toes). The upper ledge is 30 cm. wide and 25 cm. deep. It 
rests on a lower ledge, 45 cm. wide and 4-0 cm. deep. These consti- 
tute the fort's foundation system, which is thus 65 cm. in depth 
from the base of the curtain itself. They rest in sterile, sub- 
water table sand, and apparently function as an absorbent coquina 
pad upon which the fort rests. This foundation data, as well as 
the moat elevation data, are completely consistent with Manucy'e 
(1940) and Borrenson's (1941) investigation results on tne other 
sides of the Castillo. 

The snot furnace also rests on a coquina toe, which is 20 cm. 
thick. A second toe, also 20 cm. thick and extending 30 cm. out 
from tne first toe, is believed to have been present; however it 
is now deteriorated and crumbled. Underlying both tne solid and 
deteriorated toe sections is a 10 cm. thick layer of packed shell. 
This rested upon the 19th century fill deposit discussed above. 
Interior Excavations - latrines 

Excavations in the two small rooms beneath tne courtyard ramp, 



2C2 



the "necessarias" , provided information aboux tne sub-grade condi- 
xions of the ramp walls, xhe grade sequence in xhe courxyard, xhe 
nature and evoiuxion of sanitary systems at tne Castillo, and the 
pre-Casxillo componenx. 

Tne dark earxh midden noted in the discussion of the south 
covered way was presenx in Xhe latrines, ax a consistent elevation 
(2.77 MMSL) wixh xhe same deposix in xne souxh covered way (2.80 
MSL), Winters' excavaxion in the glacis (2.70 MM£>L) and Harrington 
ex al ' s (1952) courXyard excavations (2.60 MSL). Evidence for the 
earliesx hisxoric period acxivixy in xhe area is a tabby floor 
(Floor 3) which rests directly upon xne midden layer. Ax xne 
period represenxed by Floor 3 (which is tne 1730' s renovation) 
there was a coquina banquet xe along xhe souxh walls of boxn latrines, 
each conxaining xhree privy holes,, The ledge itself was ax that 
time 45 cm* lower xhan ixs presenx neighX. This banquette of 
coursed blocks was retained through the First Spanish Period. 

During the British Period of occupaxion, xne privies were 
renovated. A plastered coquina slab of 45 cm. in height was 
placed over xhe Spanish privy ncles, raising Xne banquette to its 
presenx heighx. A layer of earXh was added and anotner xabby 
floor laid 25 cm. above Xhe earlier one. Additionally, a rectan- 
gular coquina block structure was placed in Xhe cenxer of xhe privy, 
floored in xabby and funcxioning apparently as a urinal. A hole 
was cut into xne norXh wall of xne west latrine, near the wesX 
end, just above xhe Brixish floor elevation. This probably func- 
xioned as an opening to the courtyard xnrougn which water could 
be siosned to rinse out the urinal inxo an underground drain pipe 



203 



(snown on the riouue map of 1785). This configuration w^s estab- 
lished after 1764 and prior to 1785, strongly suggesting a British 
affiliation. It was used until well into tne American period of 
occupation at the Castillo, with reflooring both inside and out- 
side the urinal occurring after 1850. From then until about 1830, 
tne urinal stood about 15 cm, above the floor. After 1880, tne 
urinal and floor were covered with eartn and snell fill, the wall 
between the privies was added and they assumed their present 
configuration . 

One unit was placed on the exterior of tne west latrine, in 
the courtyard. This excavation revealed tne suD-grade configu- 
ration of the ramp's north wall. The aboriginal midden layer was 
present at 2.74 MMS1, with a tabby floor resting directly upon 
it. This floor (2.80 MHSl) is the earliest historic deposit in 
that part of tne courtyard. A layer of fill deposit witn a sherd 
of annular pearlware (post- 1795) was above tne early floor, capped 
by a 20 cm. thick tabby floor. This floor was witnin one centi- 
meter of tne similar floor located by Harrington et al in the 
courtyard, and was constructed in three pours. It is most likely 
a second Spanish period renovation. Above tne second Spanish 
period floor was modern fill and tne present courtyard surface. 

After tne establishment of the Second Spanish Period pave- 
ment, and before the present surface was adaed (1930's) a large 
pit was excavated along tne north ramp wall to make repairs to 
that wall. Tne repairs, believed to have been made in 1885, are 
represented by alternating courses of grey cement and cocuina 
rubble, from tne top of tne pit to tne base of tne wall. '- 



20^ 



circular hole in The privy wall was also filled at this time. 

Deposits in the latrine excavations were lacking in signifi- 
cant amounts of culxural material, and were, for tne most part, 
secondary deposits primarily useful only for dating purposes. 
The Seminole Room Excavations 

Excavation in the seminole room provided information relevant 
to original forx construction, tne l-gO's renovation, a.nd Second 
Spanish Period additions. Information about the sub-grade condi- 
tion of the room's walls was also recovered. 

The aboriginal midden layer noted tnroughout tne Castillo was 
also present in the seminole room, although at a somewnat higher 
elevation (2. 87 iOiSL) . In this room, tne top of The midden apparenTl 
was The ground surface from which The 1675 defense configuration's 
moat was excavated. The major deposits in the room were in fact, 
the fill from this 1675 moat and the edge of its associated earth- 
work (which comprised The wesT side of the unfinished Castillo until 
1685). Since only the edge of the moat's east-west jog was exca- 
vated (Test PiT 1), and since Test PiT 2 was suspended before rea- 
ching The base of moat fill, tne ten foot depth indicated documen- 
tarily for the moat cannot be confirmed. Tne excavations, however, 
did confirm the essential accuracy of the 1675 Salazar map. 

Following The in-filling of The moax, Tne courtyard wall of 
the west bank of rooms was constructed at five meters west of the 
room's present courtyard wall. It was .8 mexers Thick, and exten- 
ded in depth for 1.11 meters (from a top elevation of 3.35 MMSL). 
Most of the feature as excavated was below grade during its use. 
At this time also the pre- 1756 courtyard surface was located aT 



205 



between 3.21 and 3.13 MMSL. No floor was evident to tne east of 
the courtyard wall, in what would have been the room interior. 

During the 1730's-50's renovation, tne old courtyard wall 
and the casemate dividing walls were removed. Tne present east 
(courtyard) wall was built, and the entire room floored in tabby 
and crushed coquina. The room's norm wall was rebuilt with a 
spread footing, using fabric which was probably from tne previous 
walls of tne pre-1750's room. 

After 1756, the banquette presently in the west end of tne 
Seminole room was constructed, and was in use for at least part 
of the time during which the 1750' s renovation floor was in use. 
A layer of earth was added above that floor (and adjacent to the 
banquette) after 1785; and another very compact, fine shell aggre- 
gate tabby floor was poured. This floor was patched in a number 
of places with grey concrete, and is in use in the room today. 
It probably dates to tne Second Spanish Period. Tne sealed doorway 
evident in the room's north wall was opened, used and sealed 
during the lifespan of tne present floor. The sub-grade juncture 
of the Seminole room's north wall suggests that tne east wall 
(which also constitutes the west wall of tne south bank of rooms) 
was in place prior to the construction of the north wall. 

Very little artifactual material was present in the oeminole 
room deposits, and all Wcis secondary fill material useful primarily 
for dating. 
Sequence of Activities 

Tne restrictions upon arcneological sampling strategy' &t the 
Castillo as well as the limited excavations preclude a complete 



206 



discussion of the sequence of activity at tne fort. This section 
is, rather, intended to organize the information that was recovered 
by the temporal divisions which are apparent from archeological 
data. Tne historical data sections will undoubtedly expand these 
observations considerably. 
Aboriginal Component 

This component, noted in all areas of tne Castillo (except the 
Ravelin and water battery where it was certainly removed during 
construction), was an Indian midden dating to the St. Johns lib 
period (ca* A.D. 1100 1500.) (Vernon 1979). Tne component contained 
both sheet deposits and some discrete pit features e There is no 
evidence that the village represented at tne Castillo was occupied 
at any time during the nistoric period. It was, however, a large 
village with trading ties to west Florida and tne Georgia coast. 
Substantial amounts of faunal remains were recovered, indicating 
heavy subsistence reliance on fish and otner wild species found in 
nearby estuarine nabitats. 
nitial Fort Construction 

Deposits associated with initial fort construction were exca- 
vated in the Seminole room, tne south covered way, tne courtyard 
and the ravelin. The lower 55 cm. of earth and tne lower - m. 
of the counterscarp and south covered way walls were placed in tne 
south covered way at this time. The fill was brought from a pre- 
historic Timucua Indian village deposit, quite possibly associated 
with that upon which the Castillo rests. Tne earliest construction 
in the ravelin is represented by the sterile white beach sand 
deposit whicn is apparently the original fill material. The water 



207 



cattery yieldec :n:cr-a:icn about the original scarp foundation 
construction and also about the berth of the initial neat. 

The Seminole Room provided sorr.e of the nest ir.terestir.- 
information about the early construction work at the Castillo, 
since it was in the location of the unfinished west side of the 
Fort . Evidence for the earthwork and rr:oat protecting the west 
side until l£? 5 was present, anc the- original courtyard wall and 
surface were locate::. The casemate floor is suggested has having 
been wood or earth. "Ihe casemate dividing wall of that period, 
however, was removed during the 17 30's renovation. The elevation 



he lowest surface in the court-/ 



i->p _ 



loore; 



consistent with that in the Ser.inole room. 



Tne excavations 



Harrington et al in the courtyard also 



provided information relevant to this original construction prase. 
Those tests revealed the locations and configurations of tne t 
of rocrr.3 (Governor's house, powder magazine, storerooms) that were 
present in tne courtyard center, prior to the 1730's renovations. 



Evidence relating to the "big change'' discussed by Arana anc 
tfanucy (1977) was found in several , areas . The Ser.inole root, 
revealed the nature of construction of the courtyard's post 173'- 
west wall and the west bank of the room's dividing walls. .ese 
were apparently constructed at least partially of the fabric of 
previous walls, and they rest upon a spread footing base which 
extended deeper than excavation was permitted. A new tabby floor 
was poured over the tor of the previous courtvard wall. This 



208 



floor was consistent in elevation v:ith that in the latrines, 

1730 's renovations, and whz 



The buildings documented by Harrington et al were removed during 

the renovation. The banquette in the Seminole room was con- 

the 1756 renovation, most likely 



1 1 n r- o . 



Other changes took place during the 1760's when an attempt 
was made to strengthen the outer defenses. The powder magazine 
in the ravelin was built at this time, and one meter of fill 
were added to the south covered way. One meter of wall was alsc 
added to the south covered way wall and the counterscarp wall in 
the south covered way. Toe glacis was also built durinr- this 
oeriod . 

British Period ( 17 6*1-1783) 

Events during the British period are clearly evident only 
in the latrines and the ravelin. The rrivies of the first Sijanisr. 
oeriod were caooed, 

trough-urinal arrangement added. In the ravelin, the powder 
magazine collapsed and burned, and ^5 cm. oC fill were placed 
in the collaosed structure. 



area reflocred, and the rectangular 



Second Spanish P e rio d ( 17 83- 16^21) 

Reflooring of most interior areas excavated, including a 
major courtyard resurfacing, took place during the second Spanish 
oeriod. The door between the Seminole room and the casemate to 
the north was also constructed durinr this time. The privy cor.fi 



20' 



guration cC the British period continued in use. Considerable 

including reconstruction of the east v:all of the collapsed pov.'der 
magazine, rilling of the powder magazine area to its approximate 

1979 ~rade ; and rebuilding of the stairv;ay entrance to confcrr. 
to its rresent configuration. 



American Period ( 18 2 1- i c^ 

Major changes in the water battery occurred c:\irin~ the 
American -erica, v;hen the noat v;as cleared out, filled in, an 
the grade drought up to forrr. the water batter;:. Tne shot furnace 
v:as added in the area after 1&!Q • 

?he only archeclogically evident activity of this period 
in one south covered way is the presence of the quartermaster's 
house, which burned in the second half of the 19th century. he 
archeoiorical evidence of American oeriod activity v:as found in 
the ravelin. 

The interior of the Castillo was subjected to various repairs 



during this time, rr.ar.-:eo oy a characteristic oar.-: grey cement- 
like mortar. This is apparent in the sub-made north wall oC 
the rarr.y , which was repaired in the late 19th century. The 
hole in the west privy wal!l was alsc filled at that tire, marking 

cessation of use of that room as a privy. e second Gpar. 
period courtyard floor and Seminole room floor continued in use 
duri] ■ the American period, and the doorway connecting the Se: '. - 
nole roor. and the casemate to the north was filled in. 



'ark Service Period ( 1? ---^resen; ) 



.-.iterations relev 



c the archeolor.icai record which were 



courtyard surface and interior floors of the privy; adding sod 
to the water battery and south covered way, and the addition of 
nearly a meter cf fill and sod in the ravelin. Additionally, 
the entire south side of the east privy was impacted by the 
network zC pipes and electrical conduits placed there to service 
the power roor. and the present restroor.s. Floodlight conduit z 
•.;ere alsc placed be low grade in the south covered way and water 
cattery, impacting only the upper 30 cr. . cf deposit. Other 
changes and the archeological data associated with ther. are docu- 
mented in Manucy (1939, 19^0, 1953, I960), Borrenson (19^1), 
and '..'inter (1937), as well as in the historical data sections 



r.e Terences 



^rana. ^u_s 



1 *~ £■ n 

- : J , 



Historical Resource Management Plan Tor the Castil] 
de San Marcos National Monument. On file, Castiilc 
de San .".arcos, St. Augustine. 

Arana, Luis and Albert Manucy 

" ^he B ui 1 din- of the Castillo de San M arco s . St. 

Augustine: CasTiTic de San Harcos — HaTicnai MOnument . 

Arrendcndo , Antonio de 

1737 Piano de Castillo de San Marcos de la Florida, Plane 
C. Photostat, Castillo de San Marcos. 



■1 Report en Investigations in the Pert Marion Moat and 
Drawbridge „reas. Manuscript en file, Castillo de 
San Marcos. 

^edro 

1956 Plane, Perfiies y Elevacion que demuestra.n el estado 
encuese halla la reparacion del Fuerte de Sn Agustin 

de la Florida. Mapa , photostat at Castillo de San 
Marcos . 



> 



Pablo 



1763 Piano del Castillo del Presidio de Sn . Agustin de la 
; : l:rida. Mapa , photostat at Castillo de San .'-'.arcos. 



19*11 Tne He Senses of Spanish F lorid a, 15 65-17 63. 
Institute of Washington "Publication Ho. ~ 

He agar., Rathleer. 

1975 Assessment of Material Culture Collections at the 
Castillo de San Marcos. Contract Report to the 
Southeast Archeclcgical Center, Tallahassee, Florida 

Proposal for Archeology in Support of Stabilization 
at the Castillo de San Marcos national Monument . 
Research proposal and supporting data sutr.it*- 
the NFS Southeast Archeolcrical Center, Tallahassee, 

Florida . 



:ner, ^eorr:< 



1979 Craft Archeolcgical Research Prospectus, Castillc de 

San Marcos National Monument. Southeast Archeolcgicai 
Center, Tallahassee, Florida. 



■mnton 



, Albert Manucy and John 



1955 Archeolcgical Excavations in the Courtyard of the 
Castillc de Can Marcos, St. Augustine, Florida. 
Florida Historical Quarterly , 3^(2). 



ianucy, Albert 

Perreolein Construction: Fort Marion Mat 



1939 



■ .;. r 



1953 



ional Monument . 

anuscript on file, Castillo de Can Marcos, St. Augustine 



a Relative to the deoth of the r.ca - 



<s j. o ,'ic: i< 



1672-19*10. Manuscript on file, Castillc de San Marcos 
Si . Augustine . 

Completion report on the rehabilitation of doorways 
at the Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine. Manu- 
script on file, Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine. 

196C The Excavation of Colonial Floors in the Sally Pert 
and Guardrooir Area. Manuscript on file, Castillo de 



San Marcos 



t. Auprustme 



lioei Hume , Ivs 



1975 A tide to Artifac ts of Colonial Ameri ca . New York 
KnoDf. — 



"c'-o v 'C2r, 



-arc, 



196^ Encvclooedia of Firearms. Hev; York: E . 



)utton 



1785 Plane del Castillo de Sn Marcos cituado a 29 ara . y 
^0 minutos de latitud en la Florida del Este. Map, 

T3 V-, ^ 4- ^ ^ ^ ,- *- r> ■(- ^nc---' 1 T a ^ o C - 



1675 Deciarazion de la Pianta y estado de Fabrica de 

Castillo de San Marcos ano 1675- Unsigned mar and 
reoort to Governor Salazar. Original in Archivo de 



los Indies 2-^-1/19, 3- Photosta' 

'J:r.~ress . 



Ll! 



Q fV . J- V. ^ f P T"> T P V 



t h o o and ' b e e , " T ' ' i. n H i. s tL o ^ ~ n ' 2 ft >,> c n e o ^ i 
:'cr,: : A"cadeitTc P^esls. ~~ ~ 



.:5V: 



'/ernon , r.icr.; 



2979 Analysis cf aboriginal materials from the Castillc 
de San Marcos south covered way. Report en file, 
Florida State University. 






illiar.s , i'.auricf 



n.d. M.A. Thesis in prep: Castillo de San Marcos 
hassee, Florida State University. 



'alia- 



v. l n t e r 



ac/-: 



19 37 Archeological Report on the Thi: 
Manus criot : 



Line c: Defense, 
ebruary 25, 1937. On file, Castillo 



ban .-iarcos 



APPENDIX 1 
Colonial Period Kaps of the Castillo 



^C/crcUry. at. A.U-ffj M. 'cc pus 
y? . CcLua.<U4c -ttzc"rtca.oL> cccrc 
cCt su alh> C}m cor e ier- ■ Da*v 









<- , y SULCUS. «t frrtf>tX£* &? fUt,^ 

// y , */ / //Id ** " 1%fW*u*r***t*~ .uj.fijrta^jvr***** a*u - 



til-toia/l*^ cu.f> 



k / rr*4>Uw.d^}' C J* <** "&***■ - 



V 






a£Ce 






7 




f }c -ic "]v 4^> yt b> 



l* 



42 




- 


tfl 




'4 I 


,- -< 


9 




•1 



r.rr_;:LI.. 1 KAF I : oaiazs-r 167. 






vm -1^ 




•; . fe 

i ■■ - -^ f : ' : : : .. s I J 

~ ■'. « , ,;.- , ., :i . ,i. 

<; Hi il"' ! ' 



i 

1 ■ 






— 

c 

__- 



r- 




Fin'iu* \-i*i< u rfrnof virnrr rf r f*l 




hium 70. * Plmno del trente principal de) cmmiic dt 5 .' Afiv 
tin dt a Fiona* y del pLevrthr. our ft c onstr w> f 
par* cvbrir su Purrr**, por D. Prdro dr hroif y G*- 
r«>- v D Pablo Castello - Ann i?62 . — Serrino Gee 
grahco dtl Efercttc 



, mini, In- .'. Xr< /-///i/ j^nt^u. 



.•"*_*." .7.7..". 



C*Cdw a L.1^*™/^ 



J dcl?M 




— <*/'' {1*104 



*~'ts" 



E$L£6xa_ JO 




>JSr 






Ji'/il ffiliiA- jc/irr In lima .1 < 



"-JJ- I f J - - ^ Tw J |1 



1 



^£»S- K-ElM 



? ^- 



A /-*.»># /^*y*#». '7* 






Num. 7J — 'Plmno at) C**tilio at S ' himrcot citvdo * 19 Grs' 
r 4o miDutot ae Jmtttod en it Fiona* del £*fc*. par 
D hlartmno 6t U hocqut . — Anc j78S — Servtcto 
ti tttorico Miirtar. 



5: ae la Hocque 1785 




Ke>: 3 icJIy por: 2- guardir>om 3— prison A- latrine 5 — smitrK 6 ov/orst'n 7 prov-su 

t -— o:^.jricc suDpiiCi )() — raiic'i distribution '. i — SubsicK supping lion Ni-u b;..; ■ .. 
— snir> supplies 14 — arms 15 — commandant quarters 16— chapei IT 
i;*'np« A— saiiy port. B— guardrooms and kitchens C — prison D tjamvi «." titi.ti ii*i » i 
- F — treasury G — accountant H— chapel J — magazines K ft'icei 
N i.uriiics Others stoieiooms 



APPEIJDIX 1 : Man 6 



The 3i£ Change 



r-o " "^ 



fte: 



Arana and Manucy d. ^5 



APPENDIX 2 
CASA-1579 Lxcavations-Soil Moisture Sample results 






■TZIGHT 



rrr-jT il 



Page 1 cf ' 



Net: Weight of Percent of Moist- 
Mn Tti,:r<- ure il — Sanm if 



South Coverei Way 
T.-encr. 1 Section * 



a. l.-~ 


-3: 


22 . ^ £.raits 


30.9 E 


1.5 c 


4% 


fa. 1.57 


!33 


2" . 2 r 


3<-.2 £ 


1.1 9 


1 .9% 


c " 5" 


■.raj 


3tM r 


22-? g 


2 r . 


6.8% 



3t.t £ 



4.9* 



25-6 £ 



1.6 



5.7% 
5.7% 



h. 2.37 f.az 



21.9 > 



29.' 



2.2 c 



£.9% 

6.0% 



Soutn .overec waj 
Trench 2 Section 



t. 2.01 -31 



e. d.ui isi 



2C. 9 £ 



21.2 £ 



21. b g 



19-6 £ 



22- C c 



20.1 g 



1.0 c 



r.9_?_ 

1.5 c 



e.6% 



4.4% 



9_il% 

6.i% 



-2S_ 



pry ( 



19-6 £ 



13.1- £ 



3.6%_ 
3.9% 



Section. A 



. 1;7 !SB 



22.9 £ 



17.7 £ 



22.2 £ 



1.4 o 



1.0c 



L 



2.3% 



1. 6% 
.41 



2-8% • 



•'..5% 



■ £■ . c 



.:-. 



: .: c 



4.5% 



rv- . , 



21*. I B 



71 



'-.' : -.-l"~?~ Excavations-Soil Moisture Saiule Results 



Page 2 of 2 



F=ovz::i~;ri 


3EP0F.I 3a:-~::g 


WEIGH? 


NET WEIGHT OF 
MOISTURE 


PERCENT OF 
MOISTURE IK 
SAMPLE 




V.'ater Batter:: 
Trench - Sectior. A 


29 • 6 gra=s 


26.1 g 


3.2 c 


ic.ev 




b. l.ci M22 


3-. 9 e 


30. £ g 


4.1 g 


11.1% 




c. 1.81 :sd 


31.0 g 


2£.6 c 


; 4 


_ 




d. 2.01 M3E 


-2. " £ 


3£.2 g 


5.4 


12.3 




e. 2.21 :21 


55.0 6 


"•3. a g 


11.1 


20.0 





f o , «i ; 32 




36.2 B 


- 


* - c 




;. l.cl '31 


Uc.2 g 


32.2 g 


7.9 


19.6 




est latrine 
est Pit 1 

a. 1.26 -21 


21.5 B 


16.7 E 


: . e i : . : : 


s. i.U6 :S3 


20.6 g 


•> c B - 

, 


4.6 


23.0 





20. 1 e 



d. 1.S6 :si 



.66 '21 



r.;.r,c_e .-.ocr 



32.5 



-. -c g 



30. C e 



L o . (■ 



30. E g 



-"."• B 



2,5 



7.0 



-25— 0. - - 



e. 2.06 :IBD 


30.9 g 


29.3 g 


1.6 






' 2.26 31 


2E.2 c 


26.7 p 


fi 






g. 2.-6 MB! 


36.6 e 


22.0 g 


"5 2 





- 



7.2_ 
5.4^ 

.£_£_ 

5.0 
16.5 







, 


•5'. ' - 






r p. 


"°£ 


25.! 5 


36.2 R 


. 




n^ 


•22 


fcl.6 £ 


36.2 g 


3 . 5 


6. 3 


e. 1.0C 


• TIC 


1:5.0 s 

1 


i.1.6 g 


3.4 


SU 


f. 1.20 


"DC 


i ~^ s 


^2.9 g 


3.9 


g. 1.1:0 


•2? 


56. - 


-2 .6 g 


14.2 


25.0 









eterc -e^.ov -atur, 
I'.eters lelov Surface 



.iovenoer 29 1 -S 



APPENDIX 3 



FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS, 
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 



by 



ROCHELLE A. MARRI NAN 
ZOOARCHAEOLOGY LABORATORY 
FLORI DA STATE MUSEUM 



PREPARED FOR: 

KATHLEEN A DEAGAN 
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY 



DECEMEER 15, 1980 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I . ABSTRACT 1 

II. INTRODUCTION ] 

111. THE FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE 2 ■ 

IV. BUTCHERING PRACTICES 6 

V. AGE OF FAUNAL POPULATION 7 

VI . WORKED BONE 7 

VI I . BURNED BONE 7 

VIM. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 7 

IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 

LIST OF TABLES i 5 
MAP 1 FOLLOWS PAGE 1 



LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE I : DISTRIBUTION OF FAUNA - WEST LATRINE TESTS 

TABLE II: DISTRIBUTION OF FAUNA - RAVELIN, TEST 1 

TABLE III: DISTRIBUTION OF FAUNA - RAVELIN, TEST 2 

TABLE IV: TEMPORAL ASSIGNMENT OF FIELD SPECIMENS FOR EACH PROVENIENCE 

TABLE V: FEATURE INFORMATION - WEST LATRINE 

TABLE VI: COMPOSITE FOR ALL PROVENIENCES 

TABLE VII: BIOMASS AND BIOMASS PERCENTAGE FOR ALL PROVENIENCES BY CLASS 
(IN GRAMS) 



LIST OF MAPS 



MAP I : MAP OF THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS AND EXCAVATION AREAS 



i i 



FAUNAL REMAINS FROM. THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS 
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 



1 . ABSTRACT 

This paper provides a comparison of faunal remains from two proveniences ex- 
cavated by Dr. Kathleen A. Deagan (Florida State University) within the fortress 
Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine, Florida. Proveniences chosen were the 
Ravelin (Tests 1 and 2 of 3 tests) and the West Latrine. Both proveniences con- 
tain British and Second Spanish Period materials (spanning a period from c i rca 
1763 to 1820). Additionally, material from the West Latrine test is largely 
drawn from an aboriginal feature intersected during excavation. These proveniences 
allow a comparison of aboriginal availability contrasted with European subsistence 
practices. The results of this study indicate the importance of imported domesti- 
cates, particularly cattle and pig, to garrison subsistence. The Ravelin assem- 
blages indicate en unusually abundant use of European domesticates. 



I I . INTRODUCTI ON 

The fortress Castillo de San Marcos occupies an extensive bluff overlooking 
the confluence of the Tolomato and Matanzas Rivers (I nt racoas ta 1 Waterway) and 
the north end of Anastasia Island. As the structure now appears, it has been 
extensively modified. Initially, a large Timucue communal house made available 
to the Spanish was secured by raising encircling earthworks. A series of earth 
and wood structures suceeded the Timucua house. The first permanent stone 
structure was built over a century later, in 1672 (Harrington, e_ts_l_.: 1956). 

Two structural portions of the site, the Ravelin and the West Latrine, are 
the proveniences of the faunal remains to be considered here. The Ravelin, a 
structure designed to protect the drawbridge access over the moat, was built 
after 1680. Plan 1680, included in Harrington, et ej_. (1956: 106) does not in- 
dicate the Ravelin. This structure may have been added during the refurbishment 
end enlargement of 1738-39- Similarly, no absolute date is known for the build- 
ing or modification of the West Latrine. However, in relative terms, both must 



antedate the materials which fill them. Therefore, a termi nus post quern of ca . 
17^3 for the Ravelin can be ascribed. A termi nus pos t ouem of ca_. 1730 can be 
ascribed to the West Latrine. 

The physical location of the Castillo de San Karcos is ecotona 1 . Several 
biotopes are present within minutes by boat or a matter of hours by foot. Beach- 
dune, salt marsh, tidal river, maritime forest, and freshwater swamps represent 
easily exploitable local environments. Because the fortress was built in an 
area previously occupied by a Timucua village, the European-derived structure 
overlies and intrudes into earlier aboriginal deposits. This fortunate situation 
allows a measure of aboriginal availability of local fauna. A comparison of 
aboriginal and European subsistence patterns may be made. 

The faunal remains upon which this study is based were recovered during the 
Spring 1979 excavations directed by Dr. Kathleen A. Deagan of Florida State Uni- 
versity. Excavations were conducted as part of the annual field schools using 
student excavators. All materials were screened through zr-inch hardware cloth 
using water separation. Ravelin excavation units represent approximately 10.5 
cubic meters of fill. The West Latrine tests represent approximately 3 cubic 
meters of fill. 

III. THE FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE 

The West Latrine faunal assemblage appears to be consistent with a basal 
aboriginal midden deposit overlain and mixed with a very small amount of European- 
derived fauna. This can be seen on the tables appended. Tables I through III 
oresen: the results of faunal identification for the West Latrine, Test 1 of the 
Ravelin, and Test 2 of the Ravelin, respectively. The temporal affiliations of 
these proveniences are summarized in Table IV. Table V lists information on the 
West Latrine features and includes a diagram illustrating the horizontal appearance 



of the test area. Table VI is a composite of the two areas indicating Minimum 
Number of Individuals (MNl), number of identified fragments, weights, and biomass 
calculations. The degree of admixture in the West Latrine area appears low: note 
one identifiable S us scrofa fragment and 2 Bos taurus f ragments . Add i t i ona 1 1 y , 
there is a relatively low number of fragments which are identifiable as large 
mammal or mammal. Overall, the number of fragments assignable to mammals is low 
while the number attributable to fishes is quite high in comparison. Turtles 
have a higher representation in the West Latrine materials than in either Ravelin 
proven i ence. 

The food procurement system observed for the West Latrine assemblage is typi- 
cally aboriginal with considerable exploitation of estuarine fishes and inverte- 
brates. Additionally, foraging activities are indicated by the presence of turtles. 
This assemblage is consistent with what is known of the Timucua at the European 
contact: a sedentary village existence with corn agriculture augmented by hunting, 
fishing, and gathering. 

The Ravelin presents quite a different faunal assemblage. It can be noted at 
once that mammalian faunal usage increases markedly. Table VI illustrates the 
shift to domesticated fauna and the reduction in use of locally available resources. 
The biomass calculations shown in Table VI also supports the disparity. Table VI I 
summarizes biomass and percentage of biomass for each class of vertebrates. In the 
West Latrine, fish comprise 65.24% of the biomass and mammals 23.84%. However, 
both Ravelin proveniences evidence a heavy dependence on mammals: Test 1 has 92.35% 
mammalian remains, Test 2 has 95.85%. In the Ravelin assemblage, fishes have fallen 
to 6.21% and 3.21% (Test 1 and 2, respectively). Turtles are represented by 9.46% 
of the West Latrine biomass. Turtle biomass drops to less than 1% in both Ravelin 
proveniences. Those fish which were utilized are estuarine available species, the 
same species available to the aboriginal inhabitants. However, these species are 
never taken in the same number or same diversity as during aboriginal times. 



Why such a food use pattern existed is the pertinent question. Several 
points should be considered at this juncture. First, the Ravelin fill from which 
this sample is derived may present a very biased picture of the overall food use 
pattern of the garrison. Differential refuse disposal practices are one possible 
mitigating -actor. Secondly, the Ravelin fill faunel assemblages may indicate 
a real domesticate deoendence reflecting cultural or rank preferences. The 
Ravelin could reflect a more domes t i ca te-dependent supply of food during the letter 
years of the British and Spanish dominions when aboriginal depopula t i on reduced 
exchanges between garrison and local aboriginal population. Each point should be 
developed further. 

A. SAMPLE El AS 

Just how the Ravelin came to be filled and from what areas of the fort vicini- 
ty the fill was taken presents an inherent interpretive problem. A faunal inter- 
pretation is severely constrained by the integrity of the sample under considera- 
tion. Depositional activities at the fort are not yet clearly defined and are 
Still in an analytical stage. For the sake of conjecture, this mitigating factor 
(sample bias from depositional activities) will be set aside. The present assumpt- 
ion will be that sample bias does not exist and that these assemblages represent, 
realistically, the food practices during the British and Second Spanish Periods. 
When more is known of the depositional nature of the Ravelin area, the integrity 
of this sample can be better judged. 

B. CULTURAL PREFERENCES 

It is unfortunate that floral materials indicating the amounts and varieties 

of vegetable materials included in the garrison diet are so poorly known. Result- 

antly, the study of diet, in terms of vegetable remains, makes difficult an actual 

grasp of the British-Spanish diet. Deagan (197^:151) for example, hypothesizes 



that mestizo households should show a broader usage of local resources. Accultura- 
tive preferences would be expected to utilize elements of both dietary patterns. 
Reitz (1S79) observes that status was probably a principal factor in shaping 
dietary practices in St. Augustine. However, she cautions that no s i n g i e adaptive 
pattern was employed at one time or by one status group of people. Military 
garrisons, usually tightly stratified by rank, may reflect rank differences in 
access to particular cuts of meat, abundant provisions, or species of food animals. 
C. PR0V1SI ONING PRAC7I CES 

In other frontier situations, investigators have begun questioning the belief 
that wholesale transplantation of subsistences from the homeland occurred. A good 
example of this type of study is Shapiro's (1978) tests o r Cleland's assertions 
that British food practices at Fort M i chi 1 imacki nac mirrored such a transplantation. 
Shapiro's findings indicated that accul turs t i ve pressures in e situation removed 
from supply lines and ample provisioning closely followed aboriginal patterns. 

In the early days of St. Augustine, supplies from Spain and other areas of 
New Spain were irregular necessitating a dependence upon aboriginal efforts to 
make ud deficits. Through time, aboriginal populations decreased greatly. A 
mestizo population grew in size. As emigration continued, the town of St. Augustine 
developed. By 1763, the Spanish had been in the area for in excess of 200 years. 

Cumbaa (1S75) observes that the New World resident probably enjoyed a greater 
frequency of domestic animal meat than their Iberian relatives. Cows, pigs, and 
chickens were particularly important in St. Augustine households. It is conceivable 
that quantities of meat were available in St. Augustine by the late 1 8th century 
on a reasonably dependable basis. Spanish ranches in Florida were highly success- 
ful in cattle-raising efforts. It is also highly likely that archival records of 
the provisioning of the garrison exist for this period. Surely the local merchants 
functioned in provisioning this necessary, but captive audience. 



IV. BUTCHERI NG PRACTI CES 

Cumbaa (1975, 1978) has shown attention to regularities in bone alteration 

with useful results. Some alterations are the result of butchering practices and 

the implications of the patterns of such marks can involve ethnic preferences, 

cuts of meat produced, and status availability to choree cuts of meat. Among 

these faunal assemblages, some regularities were noted. 

Scapula: several instances of cutting below the articular surface 
(proximal) were noted. The cuts seem to proceed from a 
superior to inferior direction. Cuts are made on the 
dorsal aspect of the bone. 

Vertebrae: Numerous vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral) 
were noted. The centrum appears to have been longitudinally 
halved. While one would assume that a saw would be the tool 
preferred for such cutting, because of the cancellous nature 
of this bone, saw scars are net observable. 

Ribs: ribs represented the most numerous bone evidencing butchering 
scars. Deep cuts to superficial cuts are apparent on rib 
fragments. Some are butchered from the ventral aspect, some 
from the dorsal. Some examples indicate a cutting through 
the articular area of the rib. Most numerous, however, are 
the fragments of rib which indicate a cutting blow and snapping 
of the bone. 

Other alterations, probably resulting from butchering are: 1) tibiotarsus - 
on a fragment identified as Ga 1 1 us ca 1 1 us , cuts were visible along the distal 
articular surface. This probably represents disarticulation of the ta rsometa ta rs us 
and foot. Since a single instance is recorded for the assemblages, it is not 
certain that this is a widely practiced technique. However, some of the compara- 
tive material exhibits similar scars suggesting that this is a typical butchering 
practice of long endurance. 2) apparent cut marks on bone fraaments - perhaps from 
a cleaver or knife. These fragments are largely unidentifiable fragments probably 
assignable to Bos . 3) a radius cut at mi d-d iaphys is suggests disarticulation of 
the forehoo^, an area of little dietary value in terms of muscle masses. 

In general, almost all of the skeleton is present in the collection. Rib end 
vertebral fragments are most numerous and most commonly have butchering scars in 
ev i dence. 



V. AGE OF FAUNAL POPULATION 

The population of animals (domesticate) chosen for the garrison food base 
seem to be largely subadult. Deciduous teeth are present. Few long bones seem 
to be fused. Few teeth evidence extensive tooth wear. The single chicken iden- 
tified was a hen in laying condition. Medullary bone was evident in the tibio- 
tarsus suggesting that the hen was in excess of 6 months of age. 

VI . WORKED BONE 

Two fragments of worked bone were recovered. Both were from the Ravelin. 
A partial (half) bone, single-eye, button was recovered from Test 2 and a flat, 
elongate, smoothed fragment from Test 1 was identified. These are from Field 
Specimen lots 105 and 89, respectively. No horn remains were identified suggest- 
ing butchering elsewhere, use of polled strains, or use of horn for other needs. 

VI I . BURNED BONE 

Burned bone is defined as bone that has an altered color state from association 
with heat. It is highly possible that many or most of the faunal material was 
heated but few evidenced color alteration. In the West Latrine sample, there were 
126 examples out of 6,627 identified and quantified fragments. This represents 
only a 1.5% frequency. Ravelin Test 1 had 32 fragments out of a total of 2,287 
for 1.3%. Ravelin Test 2 had 37 fragments out of a total of 6,901 fragments for 



VIM. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

An unusual subsistence pattern has been identified in this faunal assemblage 
Rather than the expected combined use of local and imported resources observed in 
many St. Augustine sites, the Ravelin material from the Castillo de San Marcos ex- 



hibits a very high dependence upon cow and pig. Several hypotheses are appropriate 
1) the sample is biased, 2) food practices evidence the achievement of a stable 
meat supply during this time from ranching activities, 3) this food pattern is 
status/rank related. 

One more provenience from the Ravelin (Test 3) must be analyzed yet. A visual 
assessment suggests that the same types of findings will be supported by this 
sample. However, this will provide a larger sample from which to investiaate 
some of the points noted above. Additionally, as the fort is stabilized and more 
excavation is undertaken, the overall sample will be useful in evaluating the 
garrison subsistence base in comparison with the private sector. 

A study of the archives should certainly reveal records kept by the Garrison 
relating to provisioning. Perhaps records of town merchants will be available. 
It is difficult to believe that an aspiring merchant class would not be interested 
in the rather permanent need of provisioning the military population. 

When analysis of the Spring and Summer 1 S 79 excavations is completed, perhaps 
evaluation of the feasibility of use of this sample for comparative purposes can 
be made. At this time, the sample is unusual and its integrity uncertain. 



IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Be rone, R. 

1966 Anatomie Comapree des Mammi feres Domes tiques. Lyon: Laboratorie 
D'Anatomie Ecole Nationale Veterinaire. 

Cumbaa , Stephen L. 

1975 Patterns of Resource Use and Cross-Cul tura 1 Dietary Change in the 
Spanish Colonial Period. Ph.D. dissertation: University of Florida. 

1978 Fort Walsh: A Study of Late 19th Century Mounted Ploice Diet. 
Manuscript Report No. 286, Parks Canada. 

Deagan, Kathleen A. 

197^ Sex, Status and Role in the Mestizaje of Spanish Colonial Florida. 
Ph.D. dissertation: University of Florida. 

Gilbert, B. Miles 

1973 Mammalian Os teo-Archaeol ogy: North America. Columbia: Missouri 
Archaeological Society. 

Harrington, J.C., A.C. Manucy, and J.M. Goggin 

1956 Archeologi ca 1 excavations in the courtyard of Castillo de San Marcos. 
St. Augustine Historical Society, Bulletin 1. 

Rei tz , El izabeth J. 

1979 Spanish and British subsistence strategies at St. Augustine, Florida, 
and Frederica, Georgia, between 15&5 and 1783. Ph.D. dissertation: 
University of Florida. 

Schmi d , Eli sabeth 

1972 Atlas of Animal Bones. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. 

Shap i ro, Ga ry 

1978 Early British subsistence strategy at Mi chi 1 imacki nac : A case study in 
systematic particularism. Master's thesis: University of Georgia. 



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TABLE IV: TEMPORAL ASSIGNMENT OF FIELD SPECIMENS FOR EACH PROVENIENCE 

1 . RAVELIN, TEST 1 

Number Leve 1 /Loca t i on Tempore 1 As s i anmen t 

British Period fill (ca . 1763-1780) 



7& 


Level 


2 


B2 


Level 


3 


86 


Level 


k 


90 


Level 


5 


105 


Level 


6 



2. RAVEL I N, TEST 2 

Number Level /Loca t ion Temporal Assianment 



8^ 


Level 2 


87 


Area 2 


88 


Area 3 


89 


Level 3 


91 


Area 6 


9^ 


Level h 


QQ 


Level 5 


108 


Level 7 


151 


Zone k 



Spanish II fill (ca. 1785-1820) 



3. WEST LATRINE, TEST 1 

Number Level /Loca ti on Temporal Assignment 



187 


Zone 4 


188 


Zone 5 , i ns i de 




Feature #15 


190 


Zone 5 , outs i d 




Feature #1 5 


192 


Zone 6 


193 


Zone 7 


194 


Zone 8 


198 


Zone 9 


199 


F ea t u r e 17 



Spanish I I fill (ca. 1780-1820) 
British fill (ca. 1785) 

British f il 1 (ca. 1785) 

Prepared surface for Spanish I 

floor 3- ca. 17^0 
Pre-Castillo Timucua midden 



Pre-Castillo Timucua trash pit 



h. WEST LATRINE, TEST 2 

Number Level /Loca t i on Tempo ra 1 Ass i qnment 

Pre-Castillo Timucua midden 



222 


Area 6, 


Level 1 


223 


Area 5 




227 


Zone 6 




228 


Area 6, 


Level 2 



14 



TABLE V. FEATURE INFORMATION - WEST LATRINE 



Feature #15: £ rectangular coquina structure with an earthen center 
O.k meter below surface. Underlies Zone 3. 

Feature -17: a circular pit with gently sloping sides noted on South 
side of Feature #15 and probably extending beneath. 
Material contains all non-domest i ca te remains consistent 
with aboriginal midden trash pit. Field Specimen #199 
onl y . 



*J"?rn WALL 



* r i-i f t 




Scale: 1:20 metric 
Coqui na \\\\ 



15 



TABLE VI: COMPOSITE FOR ALL PROVENIENCES 











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TABLE VI: COMPOSITE FOP, ALL PROVENIENCES, CONT'D 



17 



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